Monday, September 30, 2019
Saint John The Baptist There are countless portrayals of John the Baptist and the representation of his relationship to Jesus and to the Church. John has been one of the saints most frequently appearing in Christian art. The Baptism of Christ was one of the earliest scenes from the life of Christ to be frequently depicted in Early Christian art. John's tall, thin, and bearded figure is already established and recognizable by the 5th century. In the Gospel of Luke, we are first introduced to him when Mary goes to tell her cousin, Elizabeth, the news of her pregnancy.Elizabeth, already six monthÃ¢â¬â¢s pregnant, felt the unborn child Ã¢â¬Å"jump for joyÃ¢â¬ in her womb. According to the Gospels, John declared, Ã¢â¬Å"I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Ã¢â¬ËMake straight the way of the Lord. Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ Christians interpret this to mean that John was sent to prepare for the coming of the Messiah. John does just this, when he is the one who recognizes Jesus as the Messiah and baptizes him. The baptism marks the beginning of Jesus' ministry. Because this was said to be the beginning, John is know as John the Baptist and John the Forerunner.We will describe the appearance of John the Baptist further in our analysis and how this depicts his life hundreds of years later. The first work, titled Ã¢â¬Å"John the ForerunnerÃ¢â¬ was done by an unknown iconographer in the typical Orthodox style during the 11th Century. It follows the prototypes established for John the Baptist within the Eastern tradition. In fact, the orthodox often refer to John as the Forerunner, as you see in this piece, because as stated before, he led the way for ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s arrival. As most orthodox works are, John is very still and lacking emotion, and there is no emphasis on three dimensionality.The mosaic relies heavily on symbolism instead, by portraying John with a scroll in his left hand and a gesture pointing up to Jesus Christ with his right hand. The iconic imag ery of the scroll symbolizes JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s importance and holiness as a preacher of God. The scroll reads Ã¢â¬Å"ECCE AGNUS DEI, QUI TOLLIT PECCATA MUNDIÃ¢â¬ , or Ã¢â¬Å"Behold, the lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world,Ã¢â¬ marking JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s prediction of the MessiahÃ¢â¬â¢s approach. Typically, we see John dressed in his camel tunic, but here, we see the specifics of his clothing may vary. John the Baptist is also depicted with a halo, emphasizing his ainthood and his major contribution to the life and mission of Christ. In DonatelloÃ¢â¬â¢s bronze statue of Saint John the Baptist, we see his tunic made of camel hair, along with the iconographic imagery of his raised right arm and his symbolic staff and scroll in his let arm. Although the imagery is still present, Donatello gives St. John emotions with the expression of pain or grief on his face. The adding of emotion was a fairly common trait of the Florentine High Renaissance period, and it also signifies a slight shift in representation compared to our previous Orthodox work.For quite some time, there was debate over the completion date of the sculpture. In 1973, the restoration of the piece revealed a signature and date of 1438. The date confirms that Donatello carved the sculpture in Florence for the Venetian confraternity of the Florentines. The Renaissance was a time of innovation within religious art. We start to see it with DonatelloÃ¢â¬â¢s work, but it is strikingly clear in Jacopo del SellaioÃ¢â¬â¢s circa 1480 version of St. John. Sellaio abandons the iconic scroll, traditional clothing, and even JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s gesture made toward the heavens.Instead, Sellaio shows us a youthful John the Baptist, wearing bright, impressive colors. Included is a small bowl, placed at JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s feet to symbolize the baptism of Christ. Other than that, most of the religious symbolism has transferred to political symbolism, evident in the detail of the landscape. In the distance, we see th e Palazzo Vecchio, BrunelleschiÃ¢â¬â¢s dome cathedral and the campanile designed by Giotto. Therefore, this work would have appealed to the Church and the people of Florence by combining a sense of religious, social, and political pride, which was also not uncommon during the Renaissance in Florence.The Sermon of Saint John the Baptist, by Pieter Bruegel, was done in the elaborately detailed Baroque style during the Reformation Period of Northern Europe. In the painting dated 1566, and done with oil on wood, we recognize a village preacher at one of the countless religious congregations that took place during the Reformation. The preacher is identified as John the Baptist, as he is in his traditional camel cloak. St. John is almost lost in the heart of the picture, leaving the colorful, unorganized crowd to be the principal subject of the painting.We must search for the meaning of the painting by looking closely; scanning to see what story the painter intended to tell. John the Ba ptist therefore is not in the traditional iconic format here. The size, detail, and landscape seem to be more of the focus, which is a quality of Baroque Reformation art. This change in focus served as a statement for the Protestants, insinuating that the salvation of humankind lies within the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s faith alone, not solely with the canons of the Catholic Church. Our group looked at this painting and immediately noticed the Ã¢â¬Å"light at the end of the tunnelÃ¢â¬ , or how the path forward, is lit up so brightly.John the Baptist is almost preaching and pointing the way from the dark to the light, from wrong to right, towards the path of Christ. This painting is now on display in the Museum of Fine Arts in Budapest. Dutch artist, Bartholomeus Breenbergh, completed his version of The Preaching of John the Baptist circa 1634, which is again in the Baroque Reformation period. Breenbergh does represent John the Baptist traditionally for the most part, keeping his right ha nd pointed to the sky and his left hand holding a staff. On the contrary though, the attention to individuality and landscape still presents itself, much like BruegelÃ¢â¬â¢s work.The crowd around John the Baptist seems to be preoccupied and somewhat inattentive, further symbolizing the Catholic and Protestant split. John the Baptist may be talking of the Saviors arrival, and has scared those who do not or refuse to believe. BreenberghÃ¢â¬â¢s piece can be viewed in person in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, in New York City. Spanish artist, El Greco is credited for his Counter Reformation work in his rendition of St. John the Baptist. The detailed landscape we have discussed previously is still incorporated, however, the focus and iconography are extremely emphasized.Paying tribute to the traditional St. John the Baptist, El Greco removes the confusion of the Reformation style and retains his pose, staff, camel tunic, and lamb. The images we have seen so far have not included the lamb, but in earlier images of St. John the Baptist, the lamb was commonly interchangeable with the scroll or staff. If the scroll or staff were absent from the image, then a book or object with a picture of a lamb on it would be present, in order to keep the iconography of Jesus Christ within the context.We see El Greco taking the initiative and mixing the Catholic ChurchÃ¢â¬â¢s traditional conventions with the Baroque style, which essentially is the definition of Counter Reformation art. Another example of Counter Reformation art during the Baroque period can be seen in Mattia PretiÃ¢â¬â¢s Saint John the Baptist Preaching. Similar to El GrecoÃ¢â¬â¢s work, the symbolism and iconography is much more in-depth compared to the Reformation art in the north. The Counter Reformation style resorts back to the heavy emphasis on symbolism in art, a quality that seemed to fade during the Renaissance.This return to symbolism served as the Catholic ChurchÃ¢â¬â¢s statement on the importa nce of tradition and its restoration after the Protestant Reformation. John the Baptist looks almost exhausted, assumed from preaching, as the background shows the sun setting after a long day. The lamb is also laying down, looking towards where John is pointing to the coming of Jesus. In Philippe de ChampaigneÃ¢â¬â¢s 1657 version of John the Baptist, we are able to see him up close and large in size in comparison to other portrayals as well as to the background of this painting in general. De Champaigne has St.John looking out, assuming that he does not yet have your attention. His glare seems to take you in and point you in the direction of an approaching figure. As the Forerunner, JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ precursor, John the Baptist is announcing the coming of the Messiah with the staff and scroll announcing Ã¢â¬Å"Behold the Lamb of God, that taketh away the sins of the world. Ã¢â¬ John the Baptist is about to hand over his reign as preacher to the greater one who is on His way. This painting almost transcends time, John is not just pointing us back to the past, but to how JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ mission is still in the future.The picture shows Jesus as someone we haven't met, haven't heard of, and can barely see yet. It is showing its viewer the coming of Jesus then and as He will come again, as the scripture tells us. The life-size marble statue of St. John the Baptist, by Giuseppe Obici, shows that during the 19th century, the Catholic Church was still holding strong to its iconic representation of St. John the Baptist. By this point, the traditional conventions displayed in this sculpture should be obvious, furthering the importance of iconography in art, at least by the Catholic ChurchÃ¢â¬â¢s standards.Just twenty-two years after ObiciÃ¢â¬â¢s ever-symbolic John the Baptist, French sculptor Auguste Rodin breaks the mold of the ChurchÃ¢â¬â¢s iconographic representation. In RodinÃ¢â¬â¢s version, St. John is stripped of his normal tunic and left nude, a feature t hat would not have been popular amongst the ideals of the Roman Catholic Church in the 19th century. The religious symbolism is also removed from this work. The lamb representing his holiness as a preacher is left out, and although it appears St. JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s gesture towards heaven remains, this convention is left out also.Sources say that the statue was originally holding a cross in his right hand, but was soon removed to take away any narrative context for the figure. Without the cross, there arenÃ¢â¬â¢t any religious connotations involved with this piece, other than its title. Some may consider this to be a sign of the ChurchÃ¢â¬â¢s declining influence on art and a beginning to the contemporary age of the 20th century. Moving on to Modern art, the work done last year by a young English artist, Lara French, entitled Ã¢â¬Å"John the BaptistÃ¢â¬ after its inspiration, the medieval work on the right.This abstracted piece of modern art removes itself even further from the orig inal icon of John the Baptist, maybe as far as physically and symbolically possible. We speculated and talked as a group about any possible connections between the two, and came up with very few. We therefore look forward to hearing what our classmates have to say and to see if they find any features that we missed. In conclusion, we have looked at works ranging from the 11th century to today. The early Orthodox works appear highly iconographic and unconcerned with anything else.The Renaissance introduced to the world new ways to look at religious art. This was mainly due to the growing power and pride of Popes, aristocratic families, and the politics of Florence at the time. The Church lost some of this power during the Reformation, in which the Protestants used art to make statements about their beliefs. In reaction, the Catholic Church did the same by restoring their tradition and iconography in their art. Finally, as the need for patrons declined and the presence of artistic fre edom increased, iconography in art is now generally decided by artists themselves.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
1.0 Introduction: Ã¢â¬â For an organization to survive and grow, they must have strong build strategy. Strategy is defined as a tool to assist organizations to achieve its long-term goals Hubbard, Rice & Beamish (2010). These goals are the prime reason for an organization to exist and strategies are developed to achieve these goals. Fig. 1.1- ESC model for strategy development Hubbard, Pocknee and TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s (1996), explains the strategy making process via ESC model. Fig 1.1 shows the ESC (Environment, Strategy & Capabilities) model to describe the strategy making process for an organization. Strategies are made keeping a number of factors in consideration. Environment stands for Macro and industry based environment and factors that effect the operation of an organization. Environment is discussed more in detail in later part of this report. Business strategies are made considering the interest of stakeholders, companyÃ¢â¬â¢s mission and value statement and values of the organizations. Capabilities for an organization are their resources, staff, economy of working and systems available for an organization to work in. This section is also discussed in details in this report. Also, to make effective strategies companies need to generate and gather information, analyze that information, process and implement those chosen strategies. Hubbard, Rice & Beamish (2010) explains that final part of strategy implementation is to review and monitor the strategies to find the gaps in results and fill those gaps accordingly to improve company performance. 2.0. Macro Environment Analysis Hubbard, Rice, Beamish (2010), explains that all the factors outside the organization that effect the business are studied under external environment analysis. These factors effect the strategy formulations, vision and mission planning and future organizational business. Environment analysis comprises of two major elements i.e. Macro environment analysis and Industry environment. Macro environment includes all the broad forces that surround and effect the organization and are as follows:- 2.1 Economic Dimension:- Economic dimension of an organization is the overall financial condition of the economy where organization is operating. Most important economic factors for an organization is GDP, inflation rates, exchange rates, taxation rates and wages rates. These factors define the economic dimension of an organization. Example: Ã¢â¬â Starbucks business in US during Global Financial Crisis During GFC, Starbucks was forced to pay more for its resources and to cover these additional expenses; company was forced to increase its product prices. But with the rise in interest rates and less borrowing/spending power of customers in the market, Starbucks had no option other than bearing the costs itself without increasing the prices. This additional burden forced Starbucks to close 600 stores in July 2008 (page 151, Howard Schultz, 2011). This example clearly explains the effect of Economic conditions on an organization when low purchasing power of customers lead to less demand and its effect on an organization. 2.2 Political/Legal Dimension: Ã¢â¬â This refers to the government regulations of business and its general effect, relationship with it. Its important for an organization as it defines what the organization can do and what they cannot. Customs, policies, regulations of a particular country affects the business of a international organization. 2.3 Technological Dimension: Ã¢â¬â This factor defines the resources available to operate its business in a country. It defined how an organization can convert its resources into products and services. Technology is applied with the discretion of the organization but its availability and form depends on the general environment. 2.4 Socio cultural: Ã¢â¬â Socio cultural dimensions include the culture, social effect and trends, customs, values and demographic patterns and trends in a particular demographic area. This includes the patterns people are used to and defined the future for the company with respect to its products. Example: Ã¢â¬â Starbucks in planning to expand its business in Asian countries and is planning to change 5000 year old tea-drinking culture into coffee culture (Ed Liston, 2011). Asian countries have a strong culture of consuming tea and have significant medicinal beliefs as well. Starbucks is planning to expand its business in these countries directly challenging the socio cultural dimension (page 296-305, Howard Schultz, 2011). This strategy can have mixed effects on the business. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a direct competition between old traditional beliefs and habits v/s young coffee drinking generation. There are no significant results available on the topic, but will be an interesting topic to work. This strategy can affect Starbucks business dramatically. 2.5 Sustainability: Ã¢â¬â ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a new trend mostly visible in developed countries to develop sustainable business practices to address environmental issues. Companies are expected to follow guidelines, to develop their sustainable image. This includes fair work practices, focus towards general environmental damages, deforestation, ecological concerns etc. Example: Ã¢â¬â Starbucks fostering Sustainability Starbucks tag their stores as green and try to design the stores with recyclable products, reused cabinets, natural colors, and efficient lights. CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s agricultural methods are organic, using no petrochemical based fertilizers and insecticides, and they are beneficial to the environment and water (page 317-321, Howard Schultz, 2011). Starbucks also offers 10% discount if customers bring their own coffee mugs (page 161-165, Howard Schultz, 2011). Starbucks has been busy promoting their environment involvement by developing new environmental strategies and by minimizing their carbon footprint (Starbucks Website). 3.0 Industry Analysis/ PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces Analysis: Ã¢â¬â Fig. 1.3 Ã¢â¬â PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces Model Industry analysis is used to determine the factors that influence the profitability of an organization. As shown in fig 1.3, industry analysis consists of five main forces. Porter (2008) describes these forces as the main drivers of profitability for an organization Fig 1.3. 3.1 Competitors/ Threat of new entrants: Ã¢â¬â For an organization, competitors are those individuals or groups that can reduce the revenue or can share the revenue. New or existing organizations that compete for their business, survival and growth are termed as competitors. It can be from existing market players or new entrants to the market. Mostly organizations compete for customers, revenue but competition can also be for the resources as labor/staff, new technology or patents to ensure future revenue growth. 3.2 Suppliers: Ã¢â¬â In a producing industry, suppliers play an important role by providing resources to an industry to offer services/products to the customers. This depends on the industry-supplier relationship. If suppliers are strong, they can offer resources at a higher price to get the profit share in the organization and vice versa. Thus, in a industry its very important to have consistent and reliable suppliers. Example: Ã¢â¬â Starbucks coffee bean suppliers Starbuck buys its coffee from East Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Southeast Asia and Latin America. Starbucks has its approved suppliers list and to be part of that list, suppliers have to undergo a series of tests and pass some checklists. Once Starbucks approves their supplier, the company helps the suppliers to grow coffee sustainably (page 317-318, Howard Schultz, 2011). Starbucks helps their suppliers by providing knowledge, help, funds and trainings. This helps to develop the strong relationship with the suppliers and also ensures the quality of the harvest. Thus in this case both suppliers and the industry are in win-win situation. 3.3 Bargaining power of buyers: Ã¢â¬â Porter (2008) explains that if the buying power of buyer is strong, that implies that the buyer has more options to choose from and the industry has more competition. 3.4 Substitutes: Ã¢â¬â Porter (2008) explains that if the products/services of different business or company can satisfy the needs of the customers, depicts that there is a substitute available to the customers. It leads to the competition in terms of price, quality and added values to the products. 3.5 Industry Rivalry: Ã¢â¬â In a traditional economic model, if there is rivalry among the organizations in the industry, then it drives profits to zero. But there is not perfect competition and in this case companies thrive to take competitive edge over other companies. A firm can switch costs, reduce product cost, increase add on values, offer better customers service to gain the competitive edge. Example: Ã¢â¬â Starbucks competitive edge Starbucks markets their sustainable and green approach towards environment (page 147-148 & 317-318, Howard Schultz, 2011). In this modern era, with more educated groups emerging, Starbucks is attracting more educated customers. With its initiative towards green earth and working for environmental issues, customers are supporting the brand and thus Starbucks is earning reputation and revenues. The above-mentioned example is in relation with Philip KotlerÃ¢â¬â¢s (2001), strategy of Marketing and is proving worth full for Starbucks. 4.0 Resources, Capabilities and Creation Of Values Fig. 1.4- Resource, Capabilities and Creation of Value According to resource-based view to develop the competitive advantage over other companies, organization must have resources and capabilities that are the best in the market. In fig. 1.4, Hubbard, Rice & Beamish (2010), explains that for an organizations there are four necessary conditions to pioneer the market. These conditions are outlined as below: Ã¢â¬â 4.1 Resources: Ã¢â¬â Resources are the main factor that decides the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s future. Hubbard, Rice & Beamish (2010), have used VRIO/VRINE model to describe these resources better and resources must be: Ã¢â¬â Valuable: Ã¢â¬â Organization should monitor the market and its customers carefully and must have the resources to deliver the value to the customer. Customer needs are volatile in nature and keep changing, thus organizations must enhance and upgrade their resources according to the demand. Rare: Ã¢â¬â Resources of an organization should be rare and hard to imitate by the competitors. These rare resources provide a competitive edge to the organization and must be scarce to some degree of demand in the market. Inimitable: Ã¢â¬â Resources should not be easily inimitable, and should be sophisticated to imitate. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to keep inimitable resources in technological sector as long as the technology is a patent. Non-Substitutable: Ã¢â¬â Resources should be non substitutable, i.e. there cannot be any substitute to the particular resource. Organized: Ã¢â¬â Resources of an organization should be arranged and organized according to their requirement. They should be readily available when and where required and should be properly deployed as per requirement to deliver the best quality to the customers. Exploitable: Ã¢â¬â Resources should be readily accessible and available to different sectors across the organization to transform them to add value to the customers. Capabilities: Ã¢â¬â Capabilities stand for the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to convert the available resources to customer value. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the ability of an organization to utilize its resources in an efficient manner. Organizations should have dynamic capabilities so that they can manage their knowledge, learn from them and also brings out new innovations as per requirement. Example: Ã¢â¬â Starbucks Logistics Chain: Ã¢â¬â As mentioned above Starbucks gets its coffee beans from East Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Southeast Asia and Latin America. Different regions specialize in different blend of coffee. A perfect coffee is not just a single origin, but is a mix of different beans. Starbucks has the capability to gather beans from different regions and make a perfect blend to deliver across all its stores worldwide. Its not easy to document this capability and thus not easily imitable. This is a competitive edge that Starbuck has over its competitors to pick, mix and deliver the beans faster than any other competitor in the market. Organizations should monitor and review their operations to check the purpose of the operation. Capabilities should be valuable to the customers, they should be rare, and difficult to imitate by competitors, specific to the organization and should be better than the competitors in the market. In order to manage the capabilities organizations should exercise their capabilities across their business. These above discussed conditions should work in closely coordinated manner to develop a competitive edge over its customers and should bring better value for the customers. For example Starbucks have strong inbound logistics that in relation to PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s value creating activity is a competitive edge to create customer value. 5.0 Bibliography: Ã¢â¬â Hubbard, Pocknee and TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s (1996), Ã¢â¬Å"Practical Australian StrategyÃ¢â¬ , Ch. 5, Prentice Hall Australia, Sydney. Hubbard, G. & Beamish, P. (2011). Ã¢â¬Å"Strategic management: Thinking, analysis and actionÃ¢â¬ , 4th ed., Pearson Education: Australia. Hubbard, Rice, & Beamish, (2011), Ã¢â¬Å" Strategic Management: Thinking, Analysis and ActionÃ¢â¬ , 4th ed., Pearson Education, Australia. Michael E. Porter (2008), Ã¢â¬Å"The Five Competitive Forces that Shape StrategyÃ¢â¬ , Harvard Business Review, p.86-104, Harvard Business Publication, Boston, USA. Ed Liston (2011), Ã¢â¬Å" What is more popular: Coffee or TeaÃ¢â¬ , Blog on www. Stockriters. Com, Viewed on 05th JanÃ¢â¬â¢12. Kotler Philip (2001),Ã¢â¬ A Framework for Marketing ManagementÃ¢â¬ , Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1997, Pearson Education Company, New Jersey, USA. Starbucks website viewed on 4th JanÃ¢â¬â¢12, http://www.environmentalgraffiti.com/business/news-starbucks-contribution-sustainability. Howard Schultz & Joanne Gordon (2011), Ã¢â¬Å"Onwards: How Starbucks Fought for its life without losing its soulÃ¢â¬ , John Willey & Sons, United Kingdom.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Chinese Gender Imbalance - Research Paper Example The implementation of one-child policy in China reduced the population into 1.3 billion after nearly 30 years. Government officials consider strict family planning policies as essential for economic growth of the country. This policy is accompanied by vigorous campaigns emphasizing the need for individual sacrifice for collective good (Stein, 1995, p. 31). China became one of the largest economies worldwide due to its effective implementation of policies (Chang, 2008, p. 10). However, ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s one-child policy currently threatens the gender balance of the country. Zhang Weiqing, Ã¢â¬Å"National Population and Family Planning CommissionÃ¢â¬ Minister, stresses the intention of the country to implement this policy (as cited in Chang, 2008, p. 10). This paper aims to highlight the relationship between population and gender in China. It outlines how the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s effort to reduce the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s population leads to gender imbalance. The paper thoroughly explores the one-child policy and how it contributed to gender imbalance. In addition, it highlights the coupleÃ¢â¬â¢s preference for a son as a mediating variable in the relationship between population and gender. Lastly, the paper outlines the adverse effects of gender imbalance.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Forensic Accounting Case Question (easy) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words
Forensic Accounting Case Question (easy) - Essay Example Thus, she should ensure that she does not raise any alarm when going through the examination. If anything, the group could decide to make the examination effortless, and impossible, by making sure that they sabotage any efforts she puts in the investigation. Subsequently, she should show readiness to work with them, regardless of her position in the firm. By making the examination, a form of normal routine would help her in eliminating any form of suspicion that could arise from among the rest of the workers involved in handling the cash. She should hold her suspicions about the under dealings taking place among the individuals and instead focus on the main reason for conducting the examination. There is a high likelihood that she will find discrepancies in the books, and as such, she should handle these with care not to raise too much noise. Working silently through the examination process, it would possible to unearth any possible cartel created among the employees to misapply the organizational funds. She can only reach at the bottom of the matter by maintaining a low profile investigation rather than creating a commotion by accusing different people on the missing cash. b. When conducting such an investigation, it is important to gather enough evidence to give her a good background on the issue. She should have adequate information on the amount of cash that has been missing from the organization. This is only possible by scrutinizing all organizational documents that deal with cash receivables in the organization. While doing this, she should try to establish any possible loopholes that the individuals use in order to misapply the cash. The books of accounts of the organization in the past five years or so would be the best starting point for the investigation. This would give her an idea of the amount of income that the organization used to receive then and the amount of revenues they received in the present time. This would help in identifying whether th ere was any pattern in the missing funds in the organization. It is however important to understand that the operating manager had convinced more clients into doing business with the organization, which meant that there should have been an increase for revenues. With the argument by George that he has had experienced poor economy against a prevailing good economy, it was evident that in the past, he had engaged in some form of irregularities when handling the organization funds. Thus, inspecting the inventory stock files would also reveal the amount of goods leaving the store at one particular time. These goods should tally with the amount of revenues recorded in the cash receivables. Moreover, records by the sales team would too be of value in establishing whether it was true that all the goods leaving the warehouse were sold. All these figures ought to tally. Pricing, though not an important factor, would too be an important record that would help her in the investigation. The pri cing records would help in clearing the sales teamÃ¢â¬â¢s files, making sure that the recorded amount tallied with the sales volumes made. c. Suspicions raised by chad of George are serious accusations, that if not properly investigated could affect the organizational performance or the working relations of the two individuals. It was thus SamanthaÃ¢â¬â¢s duty to either clear George or prove that ChadÃ¢â¬â¢s accusations were true. However, she could not do this
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Spirtual care in nursing - Article Example In phase 2, they used unstructured focus group interviews to allow the participants to expand on their responses from the questionnaire. The questionnaire was validated by a multidisciplinary palliative care committee, who deemed it appropriate for use. Allen S. and smith maintained a clear audit trail through the journaling technique. There was a correlation between the questionnaire and the focus group data. Ethics approval consent was sought from the University Ethics Committee. Permission was also granted from the hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s ethics committee in the rural facility. In addition, the participants were assured of independence and confidentiality, and they gave a written consent. In the analysis and discussion of the results four major themes emerged: understanding spirituality, assessment of spirituality, difficulties and education. Also, study limitations emerged. A focus group interview was not appropriate data collection method to use in the study. This was evident from the responses in the focus groups that the meaning of spirituality was inconsistent based on the individual understanding and belief. Also, the questionnaire did not provide an opportunity to give examples of spiritual care. According to the journal article, it is important for the health workers to realize the spirituality as an important component in delivering nursing care in any setting. Smyth, T, & Allen, S 2011, Nurses experiences assessing the spirituality of terminally ill patients in acute clinical practice, International Journal Of Palliative Nursing, 17, 7, pp. 337-343, Consumer Health Complete - EBSCOhost, EBSCOhost, viewed 15 March
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Opportunities and Challenges for Businesses With Globalization - Essay Example Global manufacturing outsourcing has been increasing for several years; it already has been adopted in the apparel, electronics, and automobile industries. The economic benefits have been quantified extensively; and, although sometimes challenged, the financial initial analysis is compelling given the less expensive skilled and unskilled labour costs in countries like China, India, Mexico, and Eastern Europe versus the U.S. If we take Information Technology, it has also gone global. For instance, when it was developing the highly successful iPod, Apple Computer worked with up to 10 firms and independent contractors around the world to find the right ideas and components. Even during the product design and customer requirement definition phases, it used two countries: Japan and the U.S.(5) From the above it can be seen that the globalization helps the organizations to expand its manufacturing and production all over the world, to find out a new business horizon. But these organization s, in fact, face many challenges in their business affairs. Apart from continuous and drastic cost reduction or constant innovation, to effectively tackle these pressures and constraints, and to profit from the opportunities created by globalization, the following implementations/improvements may be helpful. The organizations need to develop new business strategies which combine innovation, research and technology, a highly skilled workforce and their overall operational effectiveness in ways which competitors find hard to copy.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Project Motorcycles - Assignment Example According to PRWeb (2013), the Motorcycle, Bikes and Parts industry has entered the maturity stage and it is shifting its focus on the international trade. There is an increasing demand for low-cost and fuel-efficient motorcycles by the customers as they have less disposable income. In 2009, the industry revenue declined by 37.3% (Molavi, 2010) and it is forecasted that the trend will continue in the next five years to 2012 with declining percentage of 6.7% every year (Ã¢â¬Å"PRWebÃ¢â¬ , 2013). Likewise, it is expected that there will be a change in the target customer as the young people are looking for the motorcycles. Previously, only old people aged above 45 years were demanding these products. With easy access to the countries where production can be done on a cheap level, the companies within the industry are employing the production processes which will save their costs and allow them to earn a huge amount of profit. There are various types of organizations in the business world but the three main forms of companies which are idle for project management purposes are functional organizations, matrix organizations and pure project management organizations (Bobera, 2008). Considering the scenario of the company, the best structure is the matrix one as it allows the managers to keep a balanced focus on both existing and new projects. Since the company is planning to manage its middleweight motorcycle and large motorcycle businesses simultaneously, the matrix structure will make sure that both projects are efficiently managed. Other positive aspects of the matrix organization for the company are that the resources can be shared among various projects, the project manager makes sure that the project work is coordinated and integrated with other units, the resources are effectively balanced to make sure that the costs and quality requirements are sufficiently met and at the end of the project the anxiety of project members is
Monday, September 23, 2019
Case study - Essay Example Secondly, the proposal focuses on demonstration of the scale, as well as scope of the new group and the influence of the new management accounting practices. The demonstration could benefit the company in the attainment of its set goals and targets by end of the fiscal period. Management accounting refers to the act of combining accounting, finance, and management with the intention of exploiting competitive advantage techniques, which are essential to driving the organization towards the achievement of success. From this approach, management accounting relates to the process of developing management reports, as well as accounts with the ability and potentiality to offer accurate and timely financial and statistical information. The outcomes of management accounting are essential for the managers to make day-to-day, as well as short-term decisions. Management accounting tends to have the ability and ideal platforms for generation of monthly and weekly reports in accordance with the demands and expectations of the internal audiences. There are numerous research exercises, which have focused on the assessment of the concept of management accounting. For instance, Goretzki, Strauss, and Weber (2013, p. 41-63) focused on theorizing the influence of a new acto r of the firm can drive the institutionalization of the new role for management accountants. According to the findings of the study, it is possible to understand institutionalisation of a new role for management accountants. Their role is a product of purposive actions by diverse actors in support of specific institutional management within the organization pursuing competitive advantage in the market and industry of interest. In addition, WeiÃÅ¸enberger and Angelkort (2011, pp. 160-180) focused on the assessment of integrating financial and management accounting. This is through evaluation of the influence of a consistent financial language in relation to
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Fiber optics - Lab Report Example Each of the strands is a tenth less as thick as the strand of a human hair and it is capable of carrying approximated ten million calls. The cables are able to carry information from one point to another using the optical technology. The technology has been applied in many companies of telecommunications to transmit various telephone signals, television signals of cables and various communications in the internet. The fiber optics is more advantageous compared to existing copper wire that results from lower level of attenuation and also interference. This occurs in various long distances and in high demand applications. However, there have been various challenges resulting from development of infrastructure in cities making it time consuming and expensive to install the fiber optics (MeÃ ndez and Morse 165). As a result, fiber optics has been primarily installed in long distances where it is possible to maximize their full capacity of transmission. This has resulted into a decreased price of installing the fiber optic
Saturday, September 21, 2019
The Social Aspect of Computing Essay How has the online sharing of information, such as film and music, changed western buying habits? Record shops, cinemas, radio stations, video rental stores and even libraries are losing customers to the global trend that is OIS (Online Information Sharing the official MPAA and RIAA term for internet piracy). It once used to be a common sight to see small record shops filled with teens picking their favourite artists new records from the well stacked shelves, paying at the desk, discussing music with others and making new discoveries. It was not uncommon for people to buy or rent VHS tapes or sit at home listening to the radio. Piracy of course was alive here, the market for pirate radio, pirate tapes and pirated videos was enormous, the difference between then and today? Equipment. Nearly every person below 40 has a computer in MEDCs and also has the knowledge to share everything they want from their media collection with others. The most significant difference between the days of pirate radio and the days of worldwide networking is that you no longer need to know how it works to do it; millions of parents mindlessly expose their young kids to P2P networks such as KaZaA and LimeWire which are full of adult content, viruses and include open chat programs which might allow sexual predators access to their children. The first consumer P2P (peer-to-peer) network of note (others such as MC2 , Direct Connect and TinyP2P had existed before but were not widely adopted by the average user) called Napster allowed only for the sharing of music files such as WAVE and .mp3 (leading to MPEG 3 becoming the most popular music format in years to come). This was the most organised piracy or the time among teenagers and young adults through the internet but had problems in terms of the danger that faced the user (being caught) in that the centralized nature of the service meant that the server not only listed the files bring shared by members but all of the files passed through it in an effort to prevent the proliferation of malicious programs. This was extremely bad news for the user as Napster now had the IP address of each and every user, an integral flaw which would come back to bite the company and its user base later on before it could change its process and remove the evidence from its servers. Napster h ad finally made stealing music easy but was considered flawed by many in the IT community who wanted easier methods of sharing software, video and text files and a safer method of sharing music. Audiogalaxy was the first mainstream centralized P2P client that was capable (although not by design) of sharing any kind of file whatsoever, it gained popularity after the downfall of Napster and was the first time that the MPAA took note of file sharing software as connections became more capable of allowing fast download of high quality video. Audiogalaxy only indexed *.mp3 files, the obvious way round this limitation was found quickly: by (for example) naming a *.exe piece of software from tree.exe to tree exe .mp3. This made AG extremely useful for illegal distribution of both legally and illegally purchased data between users with experience in CGI and Batch (CGI parameters had to be edited to share non mp3 files) but was not as popular as eDonkey2000 (another P2P later to become known as eMule) program which did not have the security limitations of previous P2P clients as it was much faster to decentralize and allow open sharing and indexing. Especially in the case of Napster, facilitating thousands of minor crimes led to a series of lawsuits launched by musicians against the company (Metallica, Dr. Dre, Madonna) but received praise from other artists (Radiohead, Dispatch, Editors) for allowing distribution of singles prior to an albums release. Eventually a larger lawsuit was filed against the company which eventually resulted in bankruptcy after a lawsuit (which inadvertently increased the services user numbers) filed by the RIAA resulting in Napster closing down their network and being blocked from selling the company without liquidating assets under Chapter 7 of the US Bankruptcy Act meaning that the company was forced to close. The name was later sold to Swedish pornography company PMG who run it as a paid for service using similar looking software. AudioGalaxy was also sued and shut down as its out of court settlement rendered the service effectively useless and resulted in the services user base abandoning it en ma sse as a result AG too, opened a pay service to distribute music. In efforts to decentralize and avoid federal prosecution, modern networks designed for file sharing are de-centralized, often encrypted and use proxies to disguise IP addresses, for these reasons modern networks make it much less likely for a user to be discovered and served with a court order or other legal reprimand. A de-centralized system does not have a server which holds the files but instead a server that indexes a list of all available files rather than storing them. Most modern p2p systems also use (as mentioned previously) a process of encryption and proxy servers to make them untraceable. The servers often do not ask uploaders and downloaders of content to register accounts as they have previously done, this prevents user name linking: a process that the CIA reportedly used wherein they would search a napster username through a series of websites trying to gain personal data on a pirate in order to find and prosecute them. Another security feature of modern P2P protocols is the streaming swarm structure which works on a rarest first basis, splitting files into multiple parts and downloading these parts (to be reconstructed into a usable file on the leech (downloading) computer) rather than an actual file. As none of these individual parts is usable as the intended finished product on its own Swedish law allows the redistribution under its own piracy laws for this reason, the most prolific pirating groups are based in the country. One such group is the Swedish pirate political party called Piratbyran, the Piratbyran, (whose motto Pirate and Proud has itself caused problems for the group) this organised group has demanded that (along with the Pirates website piratgruppen.org) pirates be treated fairly by the law of the world as they believe they have the right to appraise things and decide if they are worth purchasing before doing so. For this reason, Piratbyran have set up Kopimi, a copywright alternative (said copyme) which declares others right to use your work as they see fit (this being a more extreme version of many other previously concocted alternatives like creative commons which permit a user the right to use works for non commercial reasons of their choice) for anything at all. The group also used Bram Cohens bit torrent protocol and created the worlds largest tracker a website that indexes all of the files available through the protocol which is called ThePirateBay.com (a.k.a. TPB), this site is distributed in over 20 languages and is currently the most popular tracker for the most advanced, secure and efficient protocol that is commercially available at this time. They are however intending to create their own protocol to remove their reliance in Bram Cohen (the creator) who has recently cut distribution deals with Hollywood film studios and is believed to be considering taking the protocol commercial. Governments across the world are certainly taking note, shown in hundreds of adverts which have only proven ineffective thus far. In the USA and the UK the governments have been running multiple adverts against piracy on legally purchased DVD videos and Blu ray / High Definition DVDs which are fairly useless: the advert assumes You wouldnt steal and lists a series of items before telling you piracy is a crime and showing w young girl getting up from her computer where she is downloading a film and walking out of the door. Most people tend to be offended at the fact that, after legally paying for something, they are forced to watch an advert telling them not to steal. This string of adverts alone has caused a series of parody adverts which take off the script of the original You might steal a book and even inspired a film called Steal this movie. Of course there are also positive sides to the increase in stealing and sharing among internet users, the little guy for example is heard far more than the major executive, companies are embracing the freedom culture and popular bands are pre releasing their albums for free to gain fan support. Sharing is even curing cancer! A largely adopted project ([emailprotected]) launched by a US university is folding protein strings over a massive decentralized network in an effort to discover a cancer cure or prevention in lieu of the supercomputer they would normally require. Those passing records about in the early days probably never saw that coming when they connected their first networks! Back in the early 1980s, piracy (albeit not online) was rife amongst office workers and the computer competent, these early criminals would exchange software through floppy disk and share records between each other. As the 90s started and the first networks were being created within offices, the stealing only increased as files could be copied between computer terminals via cable rather than by hand. Now, with the age of the internet: it is estimated that over 300 million of the worlds population routinely steal information and data over the internet with millions more borrowing DVDs and books from each other, whether or not these people are stealing more or less because of the internet is unquestionable, with our ability to access millions and millions of people we are able to share and steal far more than we previously could have done and this only provides incentive to give and take more than we would normally have done in a spirit of world community that is evoked by groups that exist in this sphere such as piratgruppen and the piratbyran. References:  English Wikipedia 18:06 18:09February 7th 2008 Pages on: Peer to peer file sharing, torrent, napster, audiogalaxy, warez, piratbyran or piratgruppen all saved complete to maintain coherence throughout the essay  Piratgruppen.org, Piratbyran or The Pirate Bay Blog, all saved complete to maintain coherence throughout the essay as of 18:17 18:23 February 7th 2008
Friday, September 20, 2019
Music Essays English Music Hall A Short History of the English Music Hall. The term Ã¢â¬ËMusic HallÃ¢â¬â¢ is used to refer to a venue, or to a form of entertainment taking place at that venue, typically featuring a number of miscellaneous acts, possibly including musical turns, comedy and acrobatics, in a relatively formalised programme. It is also often termed Ã¢â¬ËvarietyÃ¢â¬â¢. This essay considers the early roots of Music Hall, its growth in the late 19th century, and its subsequent loss of popularity in the face of competition from other media in the 20th century. Taken into account are the socio-economic environment and also the development of musical styles within the Music Hall context. It will be shown that the influence of Music Hall is still widespread in popular culture today. Background Music Hall developed from a range of entertainments, some of which had been part of English culture for centuries. Broadsides first appeared in the 1500s (Gammond 1991: 82): they were an early equivalent of the newspaper. News stories and satire were printed in verse form with the instructions Ã¢â¬ËTo the tune ofÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢, with the intention that the text should be sung to a well-known musical theme, typically a folk-ballad. The music itself was rarely printed, and so broadsides relied on the tradition of passing tunes on orally. In later broadsides, tunes were often popular songs from plays, with the intention of promoting shows in return for sponsorship Ã¢â¬â an early form of advertising revenue. The ballad was engrained in culture, but the demand and resources of the populus were not yet sufficient to support the growth of a performance industry. Also influential were the many fairs which were trading and entertainment events. In his diary, Samuel Pepys mentions attending Bartholomew Fair in 1661 and Ã¢â¬Å"seeing the monkeys danceÃ¢â¬ (Pepys 1661), and a number of Music Halls in the late 19th century featured animal acts (Gillies 1999: 31). One-man shows, such as those offered by Charles Dibdin (1745-1814), show elements of entertainment that were later developed in Music Halls. Dibdin can be seen as a key link between earlier folk-art traditions and the increasingly commercialised musical world of the 19th century (Gammond 1991: 153-5). He was a prolific song-writer, who had considerable success with light operas and by selling rights to his songs. These were the early days of copyright law, which developed in the late 19th century firstly to grant exclusivity of performance rights to singers and subsequently to effect a royalties system for composers. Two types of venue preceded Music Halls and had a particular influence on them: taverns and song-and-supper rooms. In taverns, a working-class clientele participated in singing along with their drinking. In song-and-supper rooms, the middle-class man-about-town (no women were admitted) could enjoy a meal while singers entertained. Song-and-supper rooms typically opened around midnight, and entertainment could be bawdy. Some of the early stars of Music Hall began their careers in taverns and song-and-supper rooms. Sam Cowell (1820-1864) is an example, and can be considered one of the first professional singer-songwriters. By 1850, he was earning a good living from the song-and-supper rooms, but had begun his career as an actor and had also performed in opera. In Ã¢â¬ËVillikins and his DinahÃ¢â¬â¢, regularly performed by Cowell, we see characteristics that were to become widespread in Music Hall songs, in particular the use of Ã¢â¬ËcommentaryÃ¢â¬â¢ between sections of the song to increase its drama. Thus prior to verse 8, where the ghosts of Villikins and Dinah appear to DinahÃ¢â¬â¢s father, the performer sets the scene: Ã¢â¬Å"Now this is the superlatively supernatural wisitation [sic] which appeared to the parient [sic] at midnight after the disease of his only progeny.Ã¢â¬ (Davison 1971: 23) The affectations in the language and pronunciation suggest the creation of the narrator as a character in his own right, and characterisation is another important element of the Music Hall song, as will be seen shortly. The growth of Music Hall was dependent on an audience able to pay for it, and with an interest in what it had to offer. The growth of a potential market is evident by the mid-19th century, when a number of Music Halls were opened (Sadie 1980: XII/832). In the mid-1840s, EvansÃ¢â¬â¢, a former song-and-supper room was reopened as a Music Hall. In 1849, Charles Morton, a pioneer of Music Hall, took over the Canterbury Arms in Lambeth and developed it as a venue. He enlarged it in 1856, and in 1861 opened the Oxford Music Hall in Oxford Street (Sadie 1980: XII/832). This idea of having a chain of venues gained ground in the latter part of the century. Early Developments 1850-1870 The 1850s and 60s can be considered as a first phase of Music Hall. Programmes were varied, with classical and popular music appearing on the same bill. Extracts from GounodÃ¢â¬â¢s opera Faust (1859) performed in Music Halls provided the first hearings of the work for English audiences. A number of early Music Hall songs use old musical themes with new texts: for example, Ã¢â¬ËSam HallÃ¢â¬â¢ can be traced back to a ballad about Captain Kidd. Harry CliftonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËPolly Perkins of Paddington GreenÃ¢â¬â¢ (1863) uses what appears to be a folk-tune (possibly Ã¢â¬ËNightingales SingÃ¢â¬â¢), but its lyrics possess a humour not seen in folk music: Polly doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t marry a Ã¢â¬ËWicountÃ¢â¬â¢ or a Ã¢â¬ËNearlÃ¢â¬â¢, but in the punchline of the song, weds a Ã¢â¬Å"bow-legged Conductor of a twopenny busÃ¢â¬ (Gammond 1991: 411). The same tune is used for another well-known Music Hall song, Ã¢â¬ËCushie ButterfieldÃ¢â¬â¢, which was particularly popular in the Newcastle area. Tyneside had its own strong Music Hall tradition, giving rise to songs such as Ã¢â¬ËThe Blaydon RacesÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËKeep Your Feet Still Geordie HinneyÃ¢â¬â¢ and all three songs display a similar humour to Ã¢â¬ËPolly PerkinsÃ¢â¬â¢. The lyrics draw on local diale ct Ã¢â¬â Cushie is Ã¢â¬Å"a young lass in Gyetsid [Gateshead]Ã¢â¬ who Ã¢â¬Å"likes hor beor [her beer]Ã¢â¬ (Davison 1971: 31). With Ã¢â¬ËChampagne CharlieÃ¢â¬â¢ (1868), the development of the character song is evident. Performed and co-written by George Leybourne, the Champagne Charlie character is described as a Ã¢â¬ËswellÃ¢â¬â¢: a well-to-do man-about-town with a taste for MoÃ «t. Unlike Ã¢â¬ËVillikinsÃ¢â¬â¢, the text is in the first person, Leybourne becoming the Champagne Charlie character in performance. The song is perhaps the first advertising jingle, and was used to promote MoÃ «t, with Leybourne rumoured to partial to the drink (he died prematurely of alcoholism). His salary at this time was around Ã £30 a week Ã¢â¬â certainly adequate to indulge in the Champagne Charlie lifestyle. However, the character was an act: Leybourne was not a Ã¢â¬ËtoffÃ¢â¬â¢, but a former mechanic who remained illiterate and spoke with a strong Black Country accent (Gammond 1991: 334) Concern was growing over the activities in Music Halls. Articles in The Tomahawk focus on the quality of the entertainment: it had been suggested that the Music Hall would Ã¢â¬Å"exercise a beneficial influence over the progress of music amongst the lower classesÃ¢â¬ but Ã¢â¬Å"Music HallÃ¢â¬ ¦is mischievous to the art which it pretends to upholdÃ¢â¬ (Anon 1867).Ã At the time, improvement of the working classes through access to the arts was promoted among some thinkers. Two years later, Music Halls are criticised for being dens of vice: Ã¢â¬Å"I am positively assuredÃ¢â¬ ¦that on certain recognised nights loose women are admitted to these places without payment.Ã¢â¬ (Greenwood 1869). The often poor reputation of the Music Halls contributed to later attempts by the authorities to regulate their activities. Heyday 1870-1900 The development of Music Halls should be seen in context of wider developments in the social and economic environment of Victorian England. Following the Industrial Revolution, workers migrated from rural communities to cities, and this pattern accelerated in the 1870s. By the mid-1880s, around half the population of London had been born elsewhere (Harris 1994: 42-3). Simultaneously, leisure time increased. In the late 1860s, a half-day holiday was introduced on a Saturday, and in the 1870s, the 9-hour working day was introduced (Harris 1994: 139). Leisure time became a larger part of life for the working classes, and Music Hall was one activity that benefited from this. Drinking had always formed an element of the Music Hall entertainment, but the ruling classes had sought to control this. In 1878, London County Council restricted the consumption of liquor to the back of the halls (Sadie 1980: XII/833), also demanding that a proscenium arch and fire curtain be installed at all venues (there had been a number of fires at Music Halls). A number of smaller operators were forced to shut down, while the larger operators built up chains of venues, with Music Halls growing in size and number. In June 1888, a House of Lords debate quoted a figure of 473 Music Halls in London alone (Gillies 1999: 23). Larger halls meant that some of the intimacy of earlier venues was lost. Instead of a Chairman introducing acts and enjoying banter with the audience, venues identified performers by use of an indicator board, with each act having a number. In this environment of larger audiences, the most successful performers were able to command substantial fees, and some became internationally famous. Up to this point, Music Hall stars had been almost exclusively male, but from around 1880, women appeared regularly at Music Halls and were among the most successful Music Hall stars. Marie Lloyd is probably the best known: by 1891, she was appearing at several venues each night and earning Ã £100 a week. At this time, a 2-up, 2-down house in Oldham cost Ã £150-180 (Harris 1994: 113). In 1911, twenty years later,Ã only just over 2% of the population earned over Ã £160 in a year (Harris 1994: 107). In comparative terms, therefore, LloydÃ¢â¬â¢s earnings were on a par with a Premiership footballer today. In her early career, she infamously fell foul of performing rights by adopting Ã¢â¬ËThe Boy I Love Is Up In The GalleryÃ¢â¬â¢ as a key song in her repertoire, and she is still strongly associated with it. However, Nelly Power, another singer of the day, had exclusive performance rights for the song, and Lloyd was forced to stop singing it (Gillies 1999: 18 et al). At this time, exclusive association with a particular song enabled a performer to generate bookings, as nobody else was allowed to perform it. Songwriters sold a song with performing rights to a singer, and were thereafter not entitled to any further income. They relied on writing more songs on the same basis, but campaigned for further payments and the royalties system of today developed.Ã Pantomime was also an outlet for Music Hall stars, who would appear singing the songs for which they were most famous. This had a profound influence on the development of pantomime, with traditional characters such as Harlequin and Columbine dropped in favour of interpretations of fairy tales built around the Music Hall personalities and their repertoires. The music publishing industry had grown alongside the development of Music Halls. By the 1830s, songs such as Ã¢â¬ËHe was such a nice young manÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËAll round my hatÃ¢â¬â¢ (a folk tune) were produced for sale at Pleasure Gardens or song-and-supper rooms. The music catalogues of publishers typically included a range of material including songs, operatic arias, hymns and dances. Charles Sheard was publishing Music Hall material from around 1852 as part of its Musical Bouquet series (Gammond 1991: 410). From 1850-1900, the price of a piano dropped and some manufacturers introduced monthly payment schemes, making the instrument more accessible (Gillies 1991: 66). This helped the Music Hall songs become firmly engrained in the popular musical culture of the time. Songs had an air of respectability about them until around 1860, after which many started to display more vulgarity. This was still subtle by modern standards: Dan LenoÃ¢â¬â¢s trademark song Ã¢â¬ËThe Swimming MasterÃ¢â¬â¢ (by Herbert Darnley) makes much of the need for bodily contact with the ladies being taught to swim Ã¢â¬â if they feel theyÃ¢â¬â¢re sinking, then Ã¢â¬Å"To my manly chest they clingÃ¢â¬ (Davison 1971:69) Ã¢â¬â but goes no further than suggestion. Some venues decreased the classical element of their music programmes. Dickens (1879) comments that Ã¢â¬Å"the operatic selections which were at one time the distinguishing feature of the Oxford have of late years been discontinuedÃ¢â¬ , and evidence from Music Hall programmes from this time onwards shows a focus on popular idioms. However, other Music Halls continued to offer what might be considered as more Ã¢â¬ËhighbrowÃ¢â¬â¢ entertainment. The Alhambra in Leicester Square specialised in ballet, and EvansÃ¢â¬â¢ in Covent Garden offered Ã¢â¬Å"songs, glees, and part songs, executed by a well-trained choirÃ¢â¬ (Anon 1867). The ballets at the Alhambra continued to at least the turn of the century and it also staged a number of operettas. Decline 1900-1920 In its early days, Music Hall had been seen as a largely lower-class entertainment. In the early 1900s, it gained respectability, with knighthoods for some of its key personalities and the first Royal Command Performance, featuring Music Hall acts, taking place in 1912 (Sadie 1980: XII/833). A number of developments led to the decline of Music Halls. In 1914, eating and drinking in the auditorium was banned (Gammond 1991: 409 et al) and Music Halls in effect became theatres. Many continued to offer seasons of variety performances, and there was still great interest in the entertainment, but it was now required to compete with new media: first the cinema, then radio. New music styles such as jazz were also gaining in popularity. Its influence is evident in some later Music Hall songs: Ã¢â¬ËLily of LagunaÃ¢â¬â¢ (1898) uses syncopation and describes an idealised world of African Americans living in the Southern States of the US. Its use of language such as Ã¢â¬ËniggerÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËcoonÃ¢â¬â¢ would be considered offensive today, but reflects the very different attitude to race at the time (Davison 1971: 95). The song was written by the English songwriter Leslie Stuart for Eugene Stratton, an American performer who appeared regularly Ã¢â¬Ëblacked upÃ¢â¬â¢ : this practice was widespread within the Music Hall, and continued for many years with The Black and White Minstrels a popular TV show as late as the 1970s. By the 1940s, Music Hall had largely disappeared. Gramophones provided musical entertainment in the home. The stars of variety diversified: Gracie Fields developed firstly a film career then focused on radio broadcasts in addition to appearances in variety (Gammond 1991: 189), and George Formby appeared in a number of films as well as continuing the work of his father (also George Formby, a popular variety singer at the turn of the century) in Royal Command performances and other revues (Gammond 1991: 203). The Legacy of the Music Hall The influence of the Music Hall is still very much evident in British culture. It played a major part in the development of stand-up comedy, and the Comedy Club, which has seen a revival in recent years with chains such as Jongleurs, owes an obvious debt to the Music Hall tradition. The variety show featured regularly on TV well into the 1970s on shows such as Ã¢â¬ËThe Good Old DaysÃ¢â¬â¢, and the annual Royal Command Performance, with a range of acts, is still televised. Pantomimes too feature many characteristics of those in the late 19th century, with TV personalities taking the roles that Music Hall celebrities enjoyed a hundred years ago. The musical styles seen in Music Hall continue to influence artists. Ã¢â¬ËObladi, ObladaÃ¢â¬â¢ (Lennon and McCartney, recorded by the Beatles 1968) features a fourline verse with sequence-based melodies and a simple refrain, with a line repeated, reminiscent of the choruses inviting audience participation in Music Hall. More recently, BlurÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËParklifeÃ¢â¬â¢ (1994) uses the concept of performer taking on a personality, with club- and concert-goers joining in with the Ã¢â¬ËParklifeÃ¢â¬â¢ motif at the end of each line, much like a Music Hall audience would have joined in with choruses. Music Hall should therefore be seen not just as a cultural phenomenon in its own right, but as a development in a long history of popular song and entertainment. Bibliography Clarke, Donald (Ed) (1989) Penguin Encyclopaedia of Popular Music (Viking, London) Davison, Peter (1971) Songs of the British Music Hall (Oak Publications, New York) Dickens, Charles Jnr (1879) Dickens Dictionary of London Ã¢â¬ËMusic HallsÃ¢â¬â¢, reproduced on www.arthurlloyd.co.uk Frith, Simon and Marshall, Lee (2004) Music and Copyright (2nd Edition, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh) Frow, Gerald (1985) Oh Yes It Is! A History of Pantomime (BBC, London) Gillies, Midge (1999) Marie Lloyd: The One and Only (Gollancz, London) Gammond, Peter (1991) The Oxford Companion to Popular Music (Oxford University Press, Oxford) Harding, James (1990) George Robey and the Music Hall (Hodder and Stoughton, London) Harris, Jose (1994) Private Lives, Public Spirit: Britain 1870-1914 (Penguin, London) Kilgariff, Michael (Compiler) (1998) Sing us One of the Old Songs: A Guide to Popular Song 1860-1920 (Oxford University Press, Oxford) Middleton, Richard (1990) Studying Popular M usic (Open University, Milton Keynes) Price, Richard (1999) British Society, 1680-1880 (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge) Sadie, Stanley (1980) New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians Vol. 12 pp831-834 (McMillan, London) Thompson, F M L (1988) The Rise of Respectable Society: A Social History of Traubner, Richard (1984) Operetta: A Theatrical History (Gollancz, London) Victorian Britain 1830-1900 (Fontana, London) Waites, Bernard, Bennett, Tony and Martin, Graham (Eds.) (1982) Popular Culture: Past and Present (Croom Helm, London, in Association with the Open University) Weightman, Gavin (2003) What the Industrial Revolution Did for Us (BBC, London) Websites www.arthurlloyd.co.uk Anon (1867) Extracts from Ã¢â¬ËThe Tomahawk, 14th and 21st September 1867Ã Dickens, Charles Jnr (1879) Ã¢â¬ËMusic HallsÃ¢â¬â¢ from DickensÃ¢â¬â¢s Dictionary of London Greenwood, James (1869) The Seven Curses of London www.pepysdiary.com Pepys, Samuel (1661) Diary extract from 31st August 1661 Recordings Blur Ã¢â¬ËParklifeÃ¢â¬â¢ (From the album Ã¢â¬ËParklifeÃ¢â¬â¢, 1994, Food Records) The Beatles Ã¢â¬ËObladi, ObladaÃ¢â¬â¢ (From the White Album, 1968, Parlophone)
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Debunking the Southern Secret Ã¢â¬Å"Sincerely and earnestly hoping that this little book may do something toward throwing light on the American slave system, and hastening the glad day of deliverance to the millions of my brethren in bonds Ã¢â¬ ¦ relying upon the power of truth, love, and justice, for success in my Ã¢â¬ ¦ efforts and solemnly pledging myself anew to the sacred cause, I subscribe myselfÃ¢â¬ (Douglass 76). With these words, Frederick Douglass (c. 1817-1895), an emancipated slave with no formal education, ends one of the greatest pieces of propaganda of the 19th century America: that slavery is good for the slave. He writes his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave, as an abolitionist tool to shape his northern audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s view of southern slaveholders. Through personal anecdotes, Douglass draws an accurate picture of slave life. Simultaneously, he chooses these events for how they will affect the northern audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion of southern slav eholders (Quarles ii). By using the written word, Douglass targets educated northern whites because they were the only group capable of changing the status quo. Illiterate northern whites and free northern blacks could not vote, while white Southerners would not vote because they did not want change. For that reason, Douglass used his life story as an instrument to promote abolition among literate northern whites (vi). Douglass uses family relationships, starting with his own birth, to gain the compassion of his target audience. He never knew the identity of his father, but it was Ã¢â¬Å"whisperedÃ¢â¬ (Douglass 2) that it was his master. Douglass mentions this to demonstrate how the Ã¢â¬Å"master in [many] cases, sustains to his slaves the double relation of master and fatherÃ¢â¬ (2). This was so commonplace that it was Ã¢â¬Å"by law established that the children of women shall in all cases follow the condition of their motherÃ¢â¬ (2). This meant that these bastard children were slaves despite their paternal heritage because their mother was a slave. The effect of this revelation was to shock and offend the morals of the conservative northern whites. Northern society scorned people in adulterous and interracial relationships. By portraying these Southerners as immoral and adulterous, Douglass wanted to cultivate in his audience a damaging opinion of southern slaveholders (Quarles ix). Continuing with the theme o... ...streated and punished their slaves, and how they used religion as an excuse to legitimize their immoral actions. Ã¢â¬Å"Slavery was a most painful situation; and, to understand it, one must experience it, or imagine himself in similar circumstances Ã¢â¬ ¦ then, and not till then, will he fully appreciate the hardships of, and know how to sympathize with, the toil worn and whipped-scarred Ã¢â¬ ¦ slaveÃ¢â¬ (64). DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s own words are meant as a plea for his readers to imagine themselves in his situation he and other slaves endured to better understand the hardships he and other slaves endured (Quarles xi). Frederick Douglass used family values, basic human rights, and religion to persuade the northern white audience toward the cause of abolition. He expects his readers will share his Ã¢â¬Å"hate [for] the corrupt, slaveholding, woman whipping, cradle-plundering, partial and hypocritical Christianity of [southern slaveholders]Ã¢â¬ (Douglass 71). American slavery does not exist in today due partly to DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s effort to help advance the cause of abolition. Works Cited Quarles, Benjamin, ed. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave. By Frederick Douglass. Cambridge: Harvard Press, 1988.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The times before now have all been in preparation, preparation not only for this day but for the rest of our lives. We have all learned many lessons, which have helped to shape who we are. Starting way back in elementary school we began to discover that ... Riding the school bus went out of style by the fifth grade. That the most embarrassing part of the day was calling your teacher mom. That not eating the tuna burgers really wouldn't help to save the dolphins. And we finally began to realize that all the boys didn't have cooties. By middle school there were a whole new set of rules to be learned. That just because a relationship lasted a week didn't mean it was long term. That clothes bought from value village tended to have a really weird smell. That skipping class to sit in the bathroom wasn't really quite as cool as we thought it was. Finally we reached high school, the time we'd dreamed about and looked up to for most of our lives. We thought we knew what it was all about just because we had watched hours of reruns of "Saved by the Bell." We soon learned that ... Driving 15 miles over the speed limit isn't legal. That parents' clocks are always too fast especially if it's past curfew. That dads love you enough to sit through all the games and the awards nights. That it is possible for three girls to change a flat tire. Moms do know what's best, even if I haven't quite figured that one out yet. Oh and all people don't always find blonde jokes funny. But through all of our trials and learning experiences we've developed our true selves. Our future is now at the door and we must knock on it. I'm not up here today because I'm a super genius nor do I have anything close to perfect SAT scores. I am up here today because I am dedicated and motivated.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Steroid Usage Why do so many people use steroids when there are so many health risks and side effects? Do people take steroids because they are not aware of all the risks? Not likely, steroids have been around since the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s when Nazi scientists tried to invent drugs that would make German armies more powerful (Banks, Substance Abuse in Sport: The Realities, pg. 13-21). Though steroids were considered harmful and made illegal in 1991 (Berlow, Sports Ethics). Some side affects of steroids are baldness, high blood pressure, lowered sex drive, acne, nosebleeds, liver disease, kidney disease, and many more (Williams, Drugs and Athletic Performance, pg. 88-90). It may sound ridiculous and idiotic, to those who use steroids, with all the risks involved, but the temptation and pressures in using them are sometimes unbearable. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society there are many pressures to be the best athlete and to look a certain way. Nobody wants to take second place, or look scrawny and wimpy. People w ant to be the winner and want others to turn their heads to look at them when they walk into a room. The fastest and easiest way to do that is to take steroids. People take steroids to be bigger and better at sports and also improve physical appearance. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s athletics, athletes are getting bigger, stronger, and faster. Whether an athlete plays high school or professional sports, it is getting harder for athletes to compete at a high level with all the competition. When an athlete is not good enough to make the team or is on a team and does not play much the athlete will do just about anything to improve themselves. Many athletes spend numerous hours practicing and lifting weights trying to get better at their sport, and still they lack what it takes to make the team or be the best. Steroids are the solution to their problems and a way to make their dreams come true. If you were offered the opportunity to lose body fat, get stronger, add more muscle within six weeks and have more motivation to work out more consistently then you do now, would not you try it? Sure it is illegal and it is unfair for all the other athletes who do it the hard way, but most do not care. Many young men are taking steroids a t a young age. Reports from the Arizona Criminal Justice Commission issued a report that steroid use increased 2.6 percent from 1997 to 1999. Also, a report from th... ...unless they take steroids. Should the athlete take steroids and be a starter, or do not take steroids and never play? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s athletics, nobody wants to watch a losing team. Whether the person plays on a team, or an individual sport. People want to see their team or favorite athlete succeed. Everyone is getting bigger and better at the sports they play. Some of the pressure that athletes receive is from the fans.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There are many pressures in society today. Some people take steroids so they will make the team or do better in the sport they play, and others just want to look good. The rest are pressured into taking steroids from there coaches, media, and even fans. Are taking steroids worth all of the risks involved? Well, for the people who take steroids they are worth all the risks. In athletics there is no second place; either you are a winner or you are a loser, and nobody likes to be a loser. There are many reasons people use steroids. Although steroids are not safe, people continue to use them. It is not right for people to use steroids, but as long as there are pressures to win, look good, and to get bigger and stronger there will be people using steroids.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Nowadays an instruction is non a privilege for affluent people merely as it was some decennaries ago and in in-between ages. Every kid and every individual has an chance to have a certain degree of instruction for free. Many types of school are available today. Let us discourse three of them Ã¢â¬â public school, magnet school and charter school. What are differences between them? Public Schools To specify differences between the types of schools is impossible without the clear apprehension of the chief thought of every school. First of all, allow us analyze what is public school. It could be assorted types of educational establishments depending on the state. Largely, public schools is an educational establishment that is funded and run by the authorities ( normally it is funded through the revenue enhancements ) . Nevertheless, some public schools are run by different organisations and they are independent from the authorities ; we can see them private establishments. We can see that public schools are a consequence of the thought that authorities of a state has a duty for the degree of instruction of its citizens. Most of public schools charge a little stuff fee and they are free to go to. There are many assorted schooling theoretical accounts changing from state to state. Nevertheless, the most popular theoretical account of public instruction attentions about kids throu ghout childhood and in to the late teens. Some states besides provide an chance to acquire higher instruction for free. This chance is for those pupils who are citizens of a state. Besides some states provide a sort of partially authorities subsidise university plans. Talking about the United States, we can see that the authorities of the state operates figure of province colleges, although pupils are expected to pay different fee ( for illustration, tuition one ) . On the other manus, there are some fiscal assistance plans and authorities loan available for the citizens of the United States. In other states, like the United Kingdom, public schools are largely in private funded and bear down a high tuition fees ; these schools set a high admittance criterions. In such types of public schools tuition includes board and room. Most of the pupils live at the school during a term. These types of public schools have an impressive academic history and besides a long permanent tradition of household attending through over a coevals. In those states where public instruction is required and common, schooling is compulsory to a certain grade degree or age. If a individual wants to go a public school instructor, the certain grade from an commissioned university is required and good public standing every bit good. Government is maintaining checks on the public instruction system with the aid of system broad standardised trials. These trials are a sort of indicant of the degree of some basic accomplishments like simple mathematics and literacy. To sum up the thought of public school, allow us underscore the chief characteristics of it. This type of instruction includes kindergarten to 12-th class ( K Ã¢â¬â 12 ) ; besides public school refer to primary and secondary instruction ( besides it refers to the station secondary every bit good and advanced instruction, like for illustration proficient schools, university and colleges that are overseen and funded by authorities alternatively of private entities ) . State public instruction is inclusive in the intervention of pupils. Often it is operated and organized to became a calculated theoretical account of that civil community in which it s traveling to map. It could be provided to a group of pupils in a schoolroom in a cardinal school and it may be provided in Ã¢â¬â place as good ( it employs oversing instructor or sing instructors ) . State public instruction could be besides provided as shopping mall infinite ( non Ã¢â¬â school and non Ã¢â¬â place scenes ) . The chief characteristic of the province public instruction is that it is available to all people. Largely, it is mandatory for kids up to a certain age to go to a province public school ; nevertheless, the option of go toing a private school is unfastened for many people every bit good. In instance that a child attends private public school, such type of schools by and large defray its costs ( by bear downing parents tuition fee ) and operates independently of the province ( Suitts, 2008 ) . As we mentioned above, province public schools are funded by revenue enhancements largely. It means that en those people who are non go toing schools ( or their kids and their dependants are non go toing province public school ) aid to guarantee that citizens of a province are educated plenty. It is of import to advert that the term Ã¢â¬Å" public instruction Ã¢â¬ is non a equivalent word for the term Ã¢â¬Å" publically funded instruction Ã¢â¬ when it is applied to province schools. What does it means? For illustration, authorities could do a public policy determination to hold certain fiscal resources that are distributed in support ( or/and it could make up one's mind to hold some control over ) the proviso of private instruction. Voucher system and grants Ã¢â¬â in Ã¢â¬â assistance of the private schools give an illustration of publically funded private instruction. On the other manus, a province school ( including that schools that are run by a school territory ) could to a great extent trust on private support ( like private contributions or high fees ) ; this school would still be considered a province public school by virtuousness of governmental control and ownership. Normally, the province public instruction includes at that place following points: Standards and proving that are provided by authorities ; Compulsory pupils Ã¢â¬Ë attending until a certain criterion of accomplishment or until the certain age ; Certification of course of study and instructors ; the enfranchisement could be provided by either instructors Ã¢â¬Ë organisation or by authorities. In some states churches or private associations could run a school harmonizing to their principals ; they are free to make it until they comply with a certain demands of a province. In instance if the particular demands are non in understanding, a school receives a province support ( the particular demands could run into for illustration in the country of the school course of study ) . Then a school could be treated for accreditation intent and financially as a portion of the province public educational system, nevertheless they make a determination about school policy and hiring ( for illustration, non engaging atheists ) which authorities could non take itself. Many specializers assert the province public instruction to be necessary because it is demand of those people who are capable of making basic mathematics, composing and reading in the modern society. Some other people like libertarians, Teach that instruction is better to go forth for private sector. There is another group of people that are remaining for the alternate signifiers of instruction, like non Ã¢â¬â schooling. They argue that the same cognition and accomplishment is possible to accomplish without subjective pupils to province Ã¢â¬â tally compulsory schooling. How the province public schools are organized? As we mentioned earlier, they are provided by local authorities ; instruction, support and course of study and other policies as good are set through school boards that are locally elected by legal power over school territories. What are school territories? They are particular Ã¢â¬â purpose territories that are authorized by a proviso of province jurisprudence. In other words, province authorities has a right ( and utilize the right ) to supply a minimal criterions relation to all chief activities of secondary and primary schools and authorise and fund to ordain local school revenue enhancements every bit good to back up the province public schools ( this support is provided chiefly through existent belongings revenue enhancements ) . The federal authorities could financess material AIDSs to school and provinces that meet minimal federal criterions. Decisions about the school accreditation are made by voluntary regional associations. Ordinary, a province public school is divided in to a three phases: Elementary school ( kindergarten to fifth or sixth class ) ; In-between school ( junior high or Ã¢â¬Å" intermediate Ã¢â¬ school ) ; High school ( 9th or twelfths classs ) . In the in-between school is largely common the undermentioned format: the simple school contains the kindergarten through the 6th class, the in-between school contains seventh through 8th classs. Furthermore, some simple schools could be divided in to two more degrees: Primary school ( frequently it is K -2 ) ; Intermediate. Frequently these two schools are based in the separate edifices. One more emerging popular construct is the K Ã¢â¬â 8th format. In this format pupils could go to two schools merely for all their K Ã¢â¬â 12 instruction. In the K Ã¢â¬â 8 format all primary classs are houses that are situated in one subdivision of a school ( this state of affairs is more common for charter schools ) ; however, traditionally junior high school aged students are based in another subdivision of a school. Presently, some really little schools territories ( normally in rural countries ) sill maintain a K Ã¢â¬â 12 system harmonizing to which all students are housed in a individual school. In the United States, different establishments f the higher instruction that are subsidized and operated by the American province authorities is besides considered to be Ã¢â¬Å" public Ã¢â¬ . Nevertheless, public universities charge tuition ( unlike the public secondary school ) ; nevertheless these fees are normally much cheaper that the same fees that are charged by the private universities, for Ã¢â¬Å" in Ã¢â¬â province Ã¢â¬ pupils peculiarly. State universities, community colleges, and province colleges are the illustrations of public establishment of the higher instruction. The figure of the province universities is considered to be the best establishments of the higher instruction in the United States. However, they are frequently surpassed by some private colleges and universities in ranking. Among these private constitutions are those that are highly selective in the pupils they are accepting and they are expensive as good. The advantage of the public schools is obvious ( in principal, if non in pattern ever ) . In a state where the population is educated the degree of different accomplishments in the work force is meant to be increased and better public argument. Educated citizens are expected to be more likely to do thought out determinations and see the hereafter of their state. Charter Schools Now allow us research the charter schools and in which manner they are different from the province public schools. In the United States charter schools are secondary or chiefly schools that receive public money, furthermore, the can have private contributions like other schools ) . They are non a topic of some regulations, legislative acts and ordinances and this is the chief differences from the province public schools. Alternatively of it the charter schools have some types of answerability for the bring forthing of the certain consequences. The consequences are set Forth in every school Ã¢â¬Ës charter. This type of schools is unfastened and could be attended by pick. Normally, charter schools are alternate to other public schools, however, they are besides portion of the public educational system ; charter schools are non allowed to bear down tuition. In that charter schools where the registration is over subscribed, the admittance is often allocated by the admittance that is lo ttery based. Some charter schools suggest a sort of the course of study that is specialized in a one certain field ( for illustration, the course of study could be specialized in mathematics, humanistic disciplines or linguistic communications, etc. ) it is one of the efforts to supply more efficient and better general instruction than nearby public schools. It is one more difference between public schools and charter schools. The following distinctive feature of charter schools is following: some of them are founded by parents, instructors or other militants who are restricted by the traditional public educational system. There are besides province Ã¢â¬â authorised charters that are frequently established by universities, non Ã¢â¬â net income groups and some authorities entities ( schools are non charged by local school territories ) . Furthermore, sometimes school territories permit corporations to pull off ironss of charter schools. Charter schools themselves are non Ã¢â¬â net income yet ; in this manner public schools could be managed by a for Ã¢â¬â net income corporation. It is non altering the position of a school. Talking about the construction and character of charter schools, we can advert that there are two chief principals that are steering the type of schools: Charter schools operate as independent public schools declining from figure of the procedural demands of the territory populace schools. It does non intend nevertheless that a school could be exempt from the same educational criterions that are set by the territory or authorities. The liberty could be necessary for making a certain school civilization ; the civilization should maximise pupils Ã¢â¬Ë motives by stressing subject, academic asperity, relationships with caring grownups and high outlooks. Confirming pupils require the liberty to make a good balanced school civilization to fulfill the demands of the pupils. Particularly it is of import for those minority pupils in urban school territories, where the public presentation is affected by some societal phenomena stereotype menace, non Ã¢â¬â dominant cultural capital, Ã¢â¬Å" moving white Ã¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å" a codification of a street Ã¢â¬ . The charter schools are accountable for the accomplishments of their pupils. The construction and regulations of the charter schools is differ from province to province and depend on the province authorizing. Any charter school once it received a charter, a public presentation contract that is defined statutory and inside informations the school Ã¢â¬Ës mission, ends, plans, ways of step success, pupils served and methods of appraisal, is authorized to map. Most of the charter schools are granted for three to five old ages, however, the length of clip for every of charters are granted varies. This type of schools is accountably held to their patron ( province educational bureau, a local school board, university or other entity ) . It helps to adhere to the charter contract and to bring forth the positive academic consequences. It is obvious that the answerability is one of the gratings statements for the charter schools ; on the other manus, here is some grounds that is gathered by the United States Department of Education. This grounds claims that charter schools are practically non held to the high criterions of answerability in comparison with the traditional public schools. This statement could be refuted with the aid of analyzing the figure of those traditional public schools which were closed because of the hapless public presentation of their pupils on the trials at the terminal of a class or stop Ã¢â¬â of Ã¢â¬â class trials. Normally this sort of schools is allowed to remain unfastened on the status of the restructuring and new leading ( or frequently with no alterations at all ) . The advocates of the charter schools are asseverating that the schools do non hold an chance to frequently restructure ; they are merely closed down if their pupils show a hapless public presentation on the apprais als. The United States Department of Education Ã¢â¬Ës findings agrees with the statements of NEA ( National Educational Association ) , although their inability to keep some other of import factors, the restrictions of different surveies does non give us an chance to be certain if the traditional public schools are better than charter schools or non. We can merely specify all those differences that we already mentioned above. Magnet Schools The last type of schools that we are traveling to analyze is magnet school. It is a public school that has a specialised course of study or class. The term Ã¢â¬Å" magnet Ã¢â¬ refers to the manner of how the schools draw pupils from across the common boundaries that are defined by governments ( school boards ) as the school zones that feed into some certain schools. We can run into magnet schools at the in-between school degree, simple school degree and at the high school degree every bit good. In the conditions of the decentralized instruction, some magnet schools are established by the school territory ; they are draw from the territory merely. Other magnet schools are set up by province authorities ; they could be draw from the multiply territories. There are besides some magnet plans within comprehensive schools ( several schools within one school ) . The bulk of the magnet schools are academically selective. There are two types of the magnet schools that are built on a base of the elect sporting plans and on the agricultural concern ( like animate being genteelness and agriculture ) . Some magnet schools provide the competitory entryway procedure ; they require interview, hearing or the entryway scrutiny. Other magnet schools use the lottery system or accept all pupils who apply ; besides they could unite some elements of lottery and competitory entryway. Most of the schools are concentrating on a peculiar country of the survey or on the certain subject ; other could hold a more general focal point. The focal point could be made on faculty members ( technology, mathematics, natural scientific discipline, societal scientific disciplines, and humanistic disciplines, executing of all right humanistic disciplines ) or they may concentrate on the vocational, agricultural, proficient instruction. Decision Here are some chief types of schools that are common in the state. Sum uping the differences between the public school, the magnet school and the charter school we can reason that they are about the support and authorising largely. Public schools are normally focused on a pretty broad country of surveies while magnetic and charter schools are seeking to hold a narrow focal point. However, we appreciate the broad pick of educational constitutions that are assisting our citizens to be good educated and to acquire more accomplishments and cognition.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Slavery and Indentureship can be described as two of the most horrible historic happenings to occur. They share numerous differences as well as Similarities, which make us, question whether Indentureship was disguised as a form of slavery or not. Chattel slavery, otherwise known as traditional slavery is a system under which people are treated as property and are forced to work. Slaves could be held against their will from the time of their capture, purchase or birth, and deprived of the right to leave, to refuse to work, or to demand compensation. In some historical situations it has been legal for owners to kill slaves.The conditions in which the slaves resided and worked can be described as horrible. Indentureship, on the other hand, specifically East Indian Indentureship, was the arrival of East Indians from India to the Caribbean to replace African labor under a contract which they open-mindedly agreed to. In theory, as described by some historical references and using the previ ously stated definitions it can be stated that Indian Indentureship in the British Colonized Caribbean between 1845 -1917 was not a form of chattel slavery but the conditions however were reminiscent of the past system of slavery which it succeeded as a means of labour.One of the major aspects which differentiated slavery form Indentureship was the legal ownership of the workers involved. Africans were captured from their native homelands and forcefully enslaved via five ways, as prisoners of war, payment of debt, victims of kidnappings and raids, as gifts given to tribal owners and European slave traders alike and through birth. This meant that the human beings being enslaved for their whole lives were legal properties of the humans and their generations enslaving them, comparative to the ownership of animals.When immigrants landed in a Caribbean colony they came under the control of the local immigration department which was headed by a protector of immigrants called the Agent-Gen eral. In 1837 John Gladstone, father of British Prime Minister & the owner of two plantations in British Guiana, applied to the Secretary Of State for the colonies to import Indian Labourers. In 1838 396 immigrants arrived in British Guiana the great flood on Indian Immigrant Workers begun; it was deemed a success by British Guiana.The Anti-Slavery Society revealed that many of the immigrants were dying quickly, some were e being floggedÃ and wrongly imprisoned while others were not paid what they were owed, therefore in July 1838 the Indian government suspended all emigration while a Commission of Enquiry, made a thorough investigation of the conditions in British Guiana. Immigration resumed officially in 1844, and lasted until 1917. In 1840s the PlanterÃ¢â¬â¢s demand for Indian Immigrant Labour was strong, as was the case British Guiana where the government was spending $50 000 per year on Immigrant workers the colony was almost bankrupt in 1848 but a loan of $200 000 from the British government help to keep the scheme alive.But for this demand to be supplied a large amounts of immigrants were needed, Indian Immigrant Labourers were sourced from the poor streets of Bombay, Calcutta & Madras. These cities were also ports of embarkation. After 1848 they were drawn from the provinces of Agra, Oudh & Bihar which suffered from terrible frequent famine. Many of these immigrants were peasant farmers. Immigrant workers saw immigration as a means of starting over to escape from religious tribulation, to end their poverty Indentured laborers were not by law the property of their employer.Between indentured laborer and plantation owner was the existence of an employer-employee relationship. Their children were in no way bonded by the contracts signed between parent and employer. The contracts ran usually from 3-5 years and could be renewed later for 5-10 years. The contracts were voluntarily signed but however the circumstances surrounding the signings were not alw ays truthful. Some Indians were fooled or misled and there was miscommunication because of the different tribal tongues. The contracts signed in some cases were misrepresentations of the true situation in the British colonies.They were misled and received not what they bargained for; this was partly due to their illiteracy. Some Indians may also have been kidnapped form the poorer areas. Both the East Indian Indenturers and the enslaved Africans were shipped from their home lands to various European colonies. They are comparable in that many East Indians were kidnapped and taken against their will just as the enslaved Africans were. Nevertheless, the lengthy journeys these two groups of people embarked on contrasted significantly in terms of treatment and conditions.For instance, East Indian Indenturers had agents that tried to make certain that the ship had ample crew, sufficient medical personnel, sweepers, cooks and also drugs and warm clothing, they ensured that the crew looked after the welfare of the Indentured the immigrants were given 2 square meters with one adult per bunk. Also, planters paid much attention to the medical well-being of the emigrants and supplied accommodation and entertainment to make the extensive voyage more endurable for them.Although at first there were some problems the Immigrants were only allowed 1.5 square meters on deck this was very cramped for a journey wish lasted between 93-113 this led to high death rates for example the Salsette left from Calcutta to Trinidad landed with only 124 passengers 199 had died of Cholera, Dysentery and Sea Sickness. On the other hand, the enslaved Africans were also crammed onto large ships by the hundreds in inhumane conditions which led to a high death rate. The Hannibal was loaded with 200 slaves by the time the shipped had reached American water 320 slaves had died .The women were victim to rape as well, they were given minimal food, left in their own waste and only given little time on d eck to exercise & get some fresh air, because of these poor conditions along the middle passage they were often revolts on board. When immigrants landed in a Caribbean colony they came under control of the local immigration department . It was headed by a protector of immigrants who was also known as the Agent General. Each year planters sent in requests for Labourers and the immigration department divided the immigrants among the estates.When this was done the Agent General was in charge to ensure the many rules and regulations were enforced such as sound housing, watertight roofing and proper drainage to ensure the laws were enforced he had a staff of clerks, travelling inspectors and interpreters. A special corps of surgeons were also assembled headed by the islandÃ¢â¬â¢s Surgeon General, since it was found that many new immigrants died within the first year . Every three months the Agent GeneralÃ¢â¬â¢s staff had to prepare a report on each plantation listing the number of da ys lost through sickness, all fines on Labourers, and the number of births and deaths.When African slaves came to the Caribbean upon reaching the port the slaves were prepared for sale. Captains tried to make their cargo as attractive as possible . Slaves were stripped and shaved to remove grey hairs that lowered the selling price. Palm oil was rubbed into muscles to give a healthy firm appearance, some captains tried to hide to scars & wounds with cosmetic mixtures which included gunpowder, lime juice and iron rust.The final sale was carried about in two ways, a Ã¢â¬Ëslave scrambleÃ¢â¬â¢ or an auction. Slaves would be herded into a pen, surrounded byÃ eager buyers, pushing and shoving in order to position themselves to grab hold of the finest specimens. A starting gun would be fired, and the buyers would surge into the pen to try and collect the best individuals. Often, fights broke out among the buyers as well as startled slaves would jump into the water. Following the scram ble, buyers lined up with their Ã¢â¬Å"capturedÃ¢â¬ slaves and paid for them. A male slave cost about 200 guilders which was about the yearly wage for a sailor, women and children cost less in the 18th century the price went up to about ne 700 guilders.After this; slaves would be branded with the initials of their w owners. Unlike Indentured servants slaves were seen as property of their owner and therefore had little to no rights. Only those with special skills/talents were given special privileges. They were given insufficient rations and sometimes had to steal to gather enough food as well as food obtained from their own gardens. They were given inadequate amounts of fresh water. As well as worked long hours with little time for rest.Their health was a main concern but only because in order not to lose their value as workers through sickness. On large plantations it was a common practice to provide a hospital, and to engage the services of a doctor on a regular basis. Unfortun ately slaves were afflicted with many illnesses which the doctors couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t treat. Indentured Indians life on the plantation was not much different, working day was unduly long, the idea of a rest day inconceivable; the laborers found their movements severely curtailed, and indeed they were caged within the walls of the plantation.Discipline was enforced with an iron hand, and the whip cracked generously: as a number of Indian laborers in Surinam were to state in a complaint in 1883, Ã¢â¬Å"if any coolie fails to work for a single day of the week, he is sent to jail for two or four days, where he is forced to work while day and night kept under chains. We are tortured very much. For this reason two to three persons died by swallowing opium and drowning themselves. Ã¢â¬ Over the period 1834, when the first batch of indentured Indians arrived in Mauritius, to 1917, when the indentured system was brought to a halt, nearly 1. 5 million Indians had sold themselves into debt-bond age.About 240,000 Indians had been sent to British Guiana (now Guyana), 36,000 to Jamaica, and nearly 144,000 to Trinidad, to mention only some of the Caribbean nations. As the Barbadian novelist George Lamming put it, Ã¢â¬Å"these Indian hands Ã¢â¬â whether in British Guiana or Trinidad Ã¢â¬â have fed all of us. Ã¢â¬ These hands were to contribute, as much as the hands of African slaves and their descendants, to the Caribbean experiment of giving shape to a unique expression of human civilization, and as Lamming has recognized, Ã¢â¬Å"there can be no creative discovery of this civilization without the central and informing influence of the Indian presence.There can be no history of Trinidad and Guyana that is not also a history of the humanization of those landscapes by Indian Labour. Ã¢â¬ Indians are apt, like many other people, to associate the phenomenon of slavery solely with Africans, but it is not realized that indentured labor was only, in the words of Hugh Tinke r, Ã¢â¬Å"a new form of slaveryÃ¢â¬ .If what is most notable about slavery is the fact that it allows the master or the capitalist to extract labor without paying the price of labor that is precisely what was achieved through the system of indentured servitude. There is, in this abominable exercise, a salutary lesson for those who have been the victims of European domination with its characteristically merciless, self-aggrandizing, and malign features, for when Europeans saw fit to bestow Ã¢â¬Ëfreedom' upon a certain people, they could only do so by chaining others.The history of the white race, in this respect, is no fundamentally different today than it was before. But there is also, in the history of Indian indentured migration, something that rekindles hope. From the ashes of the painful and degrading experience of indenture, Indians were able, over the course of the last 150 years, to build anew their lives, and to give themselves an inestimable and indispensable place in t he countries to which they had been brought.