Saturday, August 31, 2019

Symbolism and Mrs. Mallard

In the short story â€Å"The Story of an Hour† the theme is clearly stated. The theme is â€Å"Mrs. Mallard’s desire to be independent. † The theme is expressed through the story through characterization and irony. However, the theme is expressed the most though many examples of symbolism. For example a few examples of symbolism are spring time, comfortable armchair, and Mrs. Mallard’s heart condition. The first example of symbolism that is found in â€Å"The story of an hour† is spring time. In the story it says â€Å"she could see the tops of trees that were all aquiver with the new spring life† (Chopin).This helps to symbolize Mrs. Mallard realizing that her life without Brently is like a new start. The symbol of spring time also ties into the theme of the story. It helps to portray that Mrs. Mallard likes the way her new life would look without Brentley. She also realizes that she would feel free and independent. The next example of symbo lism is found in the story is the comfortable armchair. After Mrs. Mallard hears about the news that her husband had died she sat in a â€Å"comfortable armchair†(Chopin).This comfortable armchair symbolizes Mrs. Mallard’s feeling of become comfortable with her husband’s death. This symbol also helps to support the theme because it also proves that Mrs. Mallard is become comfortable with the thought of independence and freedom. The last account of symbolism that is found in the story is Mrs. Mallard’s heart condition. At the beginning of the story it is said â€Å"Mrs. Mallard was afflicted with heart trouble†( Chopin). In the story heart trouble symbolizes her stress and unhappiness in the marriage.This also relates to the theme of the story because it expresses that she wasn’t happy with Brently and that would explain why she felt that sense of freedom. In the end of the story Mrs. Mallard dies of overjoy. The reason she died of overjoy wa s simply the thought of living her life free and independent. In conclusion the short story â€Å"The story of an Hour. † Symbolism is used all throughout the story in order for the author to express the theme of the story. Without the use of these examples of symbolism the theme would not be so boldy expressed.Spring time, heart condition, and the comfortable chair are just a few of the many examples of symbolism that is used to express the theme of â€Å"The Story Of an Hour† Works Cited â€Å"The Story of an Hour Theme. † 123HelpMe. com. 18 Feb 2013 . â€Å"Symbolism in The Story of an Hour. † 123HelpMe. com. 18 Feb 2013 . Arp, Thomas R. and Greg Johnson. Perrine's Literature: Structure, Sound and Sense. 10th Edition. Boston: Wadsworth Publishing, 2008. Print.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Importance of Human Capital in Economicdevelopment

The modern economists are of the view that natural resources i†¦ e forest minerals, climate, water power etc. play in important role in the economic development of an country. A country which has abundant natural resources is in position to development more rapidly than a country which is deficient in such resources. They here how ere emphasize that the presence of abundant resources is not a sufficient condition of economic growth.Physical factures they say are passive factors of economic growth. They are to be combined with human resources of a country who are active facture of economic development. Human resources of a country are the size of population rate of growth of population urban rural distribution of people and quality of population. The quality of population as measured by health standards educational levels and technology is vitally important in influencing a nation's cultural and economic progress.A country which has developed the skills and knowledge of its peopl e can exploit natural resources, build social economic and political organizations and can carry forward national development. The less developed countries of the world are now making investment in human persons for increasing their skills abilities ideals health on the job training programmers. These productive investments have a strong bearing upon increasing human capabilities which is called human capital. 2. What is human capital? Its Role in Economic Development?Human capital can be described as the skills training and health acquired through on the job training and education Michael Pakistan Park in defines it as: †The skill and knowledge of human beings. † It is also defined as: â€Å"The endowment of abilities to produce that exists in each human being. It can be increased through formal education, on the job training and improved health and psychological well being. To be more precise. If the people of a country are well educated, well nourished, skilled and h ealthy, they are said to have more human capital. 3. Human capital formation: Human capital formation as described by Professor Harrison as †the process of acquiring and increasing the number of person who have the skills, education and experience which are critical for the economic and political development of a country. †Human capital formation is the act of increasing the productive qualities of labor force by providing more education and by increasing skills, health and notarization level. According T. W. Schultz, there are five ways of developing human capital. i) Provision of health facilities which affect the life expectancy, strength, vigor and vitality of the people. (ii) Provision of on the job training which enhances the skill of labor force. (iii) Arranging education at the primary, secondary and higher levels. (iv) Study and extension programmer for the adults. (v) Provision of adequate migration facilities to families to adjust to changing job opportunities . 4. Importance of human capital: Human capital is the fundamental source of economic growth. It is a source of both increased productivity and technological advance.In fact the major difference between the developed and developing countries is the rate of progress in human capital. The under developed countries need human capital to staff new and expanding government services to introduce new system of land use and new methods of agriculture, to develop new means of communication to carry forward industrialization and to build the education system. Prof. Galbraith is right in saying that †we now get larger part of economic growth from investment in men and improvements brought about by improved men. ‘ 5. Problems of human capital formation in LDC's: The main problems of human capital formation in less developed countries (LDC's) including Pakistan in brief are as under. (i) Faster increase in population: The population of almost all developing countries of world includi ng Pakistan is increasing faster than rate of accumulation of human capital. As a result thereof, these countries are not making the satisfactory use sector expenditure on education is about 2. 5% of GDP for the last over five years. ii) Defective pattern of investment in education: In the developing countries of the world, the governments are giving priority to primary education for increasing literacy rate.Secondary education which provides critical skills needed for economic developed remains neglected. Another problem related to investment in education is that in the public and private sectors there is a mushroom growth of universities without trying to improve their standard of education. There are also mass failures at primary, secondary & higher levels of education resulting in wastage of the scarce resources of the countries. iii) More stress on the provision of building and equipments: Another major problem of investment in human capital in developing countries of the world is the politicians and administrator lay more stress on the construction of buildings and provision of equipments than on the provision of qualified staff. It has been observed that foreign qualified teachers and doctors are appointed in rural areas where there is little usefulness of them. (iv) Shortage of health and nutrition facilities: In the less developed countries of the world there is shortage of trained nurses qualified doctors medical equipment, medicines etc.The less availability of health facilities pose threat to the millions of the people living there. The people are faced with unsatisfactory sanitary conditions, polluted water, high fertility and death rates urban slums, illiteracy etc. All these deficiencies affect the health of the people reduce their life expectancy. (v) No facilities of on the job training: On the job training or in service training is very essential for improving or acquiring of new skills to the persons employed in various importance is given o n the job training for the employees.The result is that the efficiency and knowledge of the workers remains technicians etc. is therefore of utmost importance for the efficient use of human resources. (vi) Study programme for adults: Study programme for adults can also be introduced for improving literacy rate. Programme for adults was introduced in many under developed countries of the world including Pakistan for providing basic education. increasing skills farmers and small industrialists. The scheme has miserably failed as no interest was shown by the adults in getting such training. (vii) Half earted measures for promotion of employment: In most of the world the ratio of unemployed or under employed persons is very large. For increasing employment and reducing under employment proper investment in human capital is required which is visibly lacking in LDC's. The govt. of Pakistan has taken a number of steps for increasing employment opportunities in the country such as establish ment of SME Bank for the promotion of self employment at the grass root level, encouraging domestic and foreign investment for increasing employment opening of technical and vocational training centers etc. tc. (viii)No manpower planning: Due to non availability of reliable data there is little manpower planning in less developed countries of the world including of course Pakistan. As a result thereof, there is no matching of demand and supply of different types of skills. The result is that large number of skilled and highly qualified persons remain underemployed. The frustration and discontentment among the unemployed or underemployed graduate and post graduates result in brain drain from the country. It is a huge loss to resources of developing countries. ix) Neglect of agriculture education: In LDC's where agriculture is the major sector of the economy. , very little attention is paid for educating the farmers to the use of modern agricultural practices. Unless the farmers are p rovided agricultural education and training on the fields, they will not be able to raise the agricultural the outlook of the farmers. 6. IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN CAPITAL ON SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTP: In today's world production of goods and services on large scale are knowledge intensive.Knowledge can be imported and increased by making investment in education and provision of better health services to man. which is called investment in Man' or Human Capital Formation. The modern economists are of the view that a dollar invested on education bring a greater increase in national income than a dollar spent on dams, roads, bridges or other tangible capital goods. In the words of Professor, Galbraith, we now get the larger part of our industrial growth not from more capital investment but from investment in men and improvement brought about by improved men. ‘ The importance of human capital on economic and social development is now disused in brief. (i) Human Capital as a creat ive and productive resource: In all the developing countries of the world physical capital is invested in the construction of roads, dams, light and heavy industries, schools, hospitals etc. For proper investment and operation of these projects at low cost, you need the services of technicians, engineers, administrators, etc. If priority is not given to human investment and adequate resources are not invested in a man, the physical capital cannot be properly used.It will remain unutilized, underutilized, and misutilized. (ii) Rise in Marginal Efficiency of Capital: Human capital is now regarded as the most potent source of economic growth. It is a way of increasing output by increasing not the quantity of lab our but its quality. Investment in human capital improves the skills of work force and helps in raising marginal efficiency of capital. (iii) Utilization of foreign loans: The advanced countries of the world are assisting the developing countries by providing them grants, loans food supplies and technical expertise etc.The better education, the provision of knowledge, skills, expertise helps in proper utilization of foreign loans. (iv) Utilization of surplus manpower: The underdeveloped countries in general have abundance unskilled and untrained manpower. There is widespread under-employment and disguised unemployment in the urban and rural areas. The investment in right type of education, training, skill, health and nutrition sound manpower planning, on the job training programs etc. can go a long way in absorbing the surplus labor force and developing job opportunities. v) Effect on Health and Nutrition: Human capital formation also calls for investment in health and nutrition. If is a common knowledge that poverty, ill health, illiteracy and low productivity constitutes a vicious circle of poverty. If proper investment is made in health, nutrition drinking water etc. there will be improvement in the health of the people. There will be a desire of the p eople to work and increase production. The improvement in health status of the people thus helps in reducing population growth raising income and higher economic growth in the country. (vi) Social Change:Investment in human capital makes a positive contribution towards improving and brining fast changes in the economic and social life of the people of developing countries. Investment in human capital raises the general living standard of the people in less developed countries, it improves the quality of population i. e.. health and nutrition, literacy, skill, knowledge, desire to work. The surplus manpower is better mobilized and utilized for economic development. There is also a change in social climate of the people. The rate of social mobility increases. There is increased urbanization and industrialization.

Thursday, August 29, 2019


Bryce Langdon Professor Joliffe English 1301 17 October 2010 Smokers Smoking tobacco has been around for many thousands of years and cigarettes specifically have been around for a few thousand as well. Smoking can be split up into several classifications with three of the primary ones being those people who smoke to reduce tension, people who socially smoke and habit smokers. Regardless of the type of smoker a person is, smoking is an addiction and harmful not only to the smoker but to family members, coworkers and any other person who comes into contact with the second-hand smoke.Social Smokers. Casual smokers are those who typically do not inhale the cigarette smoke. They are not addicted to the nicotine. Some may think they are safe from the harm of a cigarette by â€Å"pretending† to smoke, but do not let this kind of smoking fool you. A person is still getting some of the affects of the smoke on top of other environmental toxins and second-hand smoke. Many times the casua l smoker is only compensating for something being in their hands and often times will turn into a regular smoker. Casual smokers often times smoke a lot more than he or she will publicly admit.Many regular smokers envy the casual smoker because they believe that they have better control over their addiction and can stop on a dime but the fact of the matter is that most casual smokers end up smoking for false pleasures, trying to feel like they did when they were non-smokers (QuitSmokinGuide. com, 2009). Smokes to Reduce Tension. A person who smokes to reduce tension uses the cigarette to manage negative effects, stressful situations and feelings of anger, fear, and anxiety. These type of smokers are often considered â€Å"light smokers† because life is full of stressful situations , hence the tension.Light smokers typically smoke between half a pack to one pack a day. Casual smokers easily slip into this smokes to reduce tension classification and often have been smokers, qui t, and taken up smoking once again, several times. Many light smokers could still benefit from products aimed at reducing nicotine addiction, like nicotine gum or counseling, however changing priorities and lifestyle often help these type of smokers kick their habit (Painter, 2009). Habit Smokers. According to the World Health Organization, an estimated 1. 3 billion people are smokers worldwide and smokers die an average fifteen years sooner than nonsmokers (Hawkins).For most habit smokers, smoking is not even enjoyable any more. People often have developed a behavioral pattern that causes them to light up as a response to a cue, for example a cup of coffee or getting into the car. Habit smokers can fall into the category of heavy to chain smokers who consume anywhere from two to more than three packs a day. When the habit smoker takes the steps necessary to quit smoking the possible withdrawal symptoms can be ugly but one must remember these are results from the person smoking not because they decided to stop.Such symptoms could include tingling or numbness in the arms and legs, severe headaches, diarrhea or constipation, and a overall uncomfortable feeling. CONCLUSION With several classifications of smokers, they are have similar characteristics for example they are cause lung damage. However, depending on the degree of smoker that a person is depends on how difficult it is going to be for the person to quit once they actually put their mind to it. No matter the classification, any person who quits smoking will be making a difference right away.A person’s taste and smell will get better, along with breathe smelling better, decrease in nasty cough, and more importantly add years onto the end of their life.Works Cited â€Å"Casual Smokers. † QuitSmokingGuide. com. 2009. Web. 19 Oct 2010. . Painter, K. â€Å"Your Health: Light smokers could need help quitting, too. † USA Today 16 November 2009: n. pag. Web. 19 Oct 2010. . â€Å"Smoking Cla ssification. † Projects for Students by Students. Oracle ThinkQuest, n. d.. Web. 19 Oct 2010. . â€Å"Types of Smokers (by Cigarette Consumption). † Nursing Research (n. d. ): n. pag. Web. 19 Oct 2010. .

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Recommending a Project Management Plan Research Paper

Recommending a Project Management Plan - Research Paper Example Most of their outlets operate in posh areas, which is why the rates are a little higher than in other fast food restaurants. One thing that goes in their favor is that when it comes to pricing, they can sell at a higher rate due to their brand loyalty. Customers love the taste of their burgers and they pay extra to taste their delicious burgers. But for this project, a glitch came up when it was discovered that market campaign must also attract health conscious people; veggie burgers and rolls will also need to be included in the advertisement. A budget of under $60,000 has been allocated to the project manager and the team for billboard advertisements. Cost saving will be made as the in-house designer will be employed by the PM for designing the boards. The main cost is renting the billboard space for the first week of the sales. It is a very competitive project where all the revenues need to be regenerated within the first week from the sales of the product. This is very much possi ble by quality advertisement and most importantly, the taste or success of the new cheese steak burger. All appropriate pricing, budgeting and trade off analysis have been incorporated to deliver a quality finish to the project. Project Scope Project scope is the sum of all works needed to be accomplished in order to achieve the scope of the project. It would be better to define the scope of the project, namely: products, services and results (Kerzner, 2009). For this task, the new burger flavor is a steak burger with a different cheese flavor, and the XYZ Corporate needs the help of a project manager to promote this product so that it would constitute as a lucrative addition to their burger variety. The product here is the burger. The service that needs to be provided is designing of billboards and the end result that the XYZ Corporate is looking for is an increase in the sale of the new item. The Learning Curves Learning curve or the experience curve plots the learning dexterity a gainst time spent in learning something. For this project, the learning curves will be refined as the company already owns a successful food business. They are only introducing a new food item (burger). The existing leering curves determine the future shape of the project’s performance. That is why it can be easily predicted that learning curves will give positive economic output against the time spent. The chef who brought the idea of the new cheese burger to the board room already has the experience of making those burgers; however the other kitchen staff needs to learn the perfect combination of the stake and cheese to make the project learning curves smoother. Quality Management Plan for the Project Overall quality management plan for this project revolves around the production of the food items (cheese burgers and shakes). The company already has a good reputation about the quality of its food; the project manager only needs to maintain the standards already set out by t he company. However, the quality of the new cheese flavor will be of much concern as the project manager will be the one bearing the prime responsibility for the quality of the cheese. Moreover, there is a limit to the fat content of the burger, if the content goes over the limit of fat in a burger, then the quality will certainly drop down. The fat content limit

Marketing Plan for the Kidz-IDz Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Marketing Plan for the Kidz-IDz - Research Paper Example At the same time, the target market of the company is ready to take part in the educational process for learning different safety precautions. One of the important elements of the marketing plans is the marketing mix or most commonly known as the 4P’s of marketing (Kotler & Armstrong, 2010). In this section the strategies of 4P’s of marketing with respect to the e-business are presented. Kidz-IDz presents the parents with different options and products which can facilitate the parents in the process of keeping the children safe. Different kits offered by the company includes different identification details about the child along with the picture identity. The main kit, known as Kidz-IDz kit consists of different products like identification card with photo, medical card, fingerprinting, and several other tools (Kidz-IDz). With the help of all of these tools, parents can make sure that all essential measures are taken for the safety of the children. This product will car ry all necessary information about the child and if he or she get lost somewhere or get indulge in some medical emergency, it will become easier to take life saving measures and contact the parents. Apart from this, the data and information can be converted into electronic information which can be forwarded to different institutions quickly in the case of emergency. Along with this the company allows the parents to update the data regularly in order to make sure that the data is not outdated. All these safety items.

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Dealing with Crime and Disorder in Urban Parks Essay

Dealing with Crime and Disorder in Urban Parks - Essay Example The parks in the urban areas are quite large and the security that is present in these parks is not strong enough and not in much number that they can keep a strong check on what is going inside the park. They are only responsible of watching over the outside of the park that no terrorist or burglar enters the park; they only keep an eye on the people who are entering the gate and do not allow who they feel suspicious. The illegal drug dealers know many ways and techniques through which they can make their way to various places from which they can trade and the drug dealers have now chosen urban parks as their main spot of dealing and they usually enter the park well dressed and like respectable ordinary people so the security officers cannot differentiate them from ordinary people. These people then carry out their illegal business in the park and it can only be observed by the people who visit parks regularly for recreation and it cannot be stopped by the local security officers. T his crime has increased and become wide spread and nearly all big parks in the urban areas have been reported for the same issue. ... rolling or other such things then they inform their in charges which then come in a jiffy and quickly wind up their work before any concerned official can get informed and make any sort of raid. The illegal drug dealers have a very wide spread network and informants who are also wide spread in many different years who keep an alert eye 24/7 to prevent their business from being caught by the police (Kinnane, 1979). A very sad part of this whole case is that there are some black sheeps of our own police department who themselves are involved in such activities and business and they are basically those who inform these drug dealers about the raid the police are about to do and other details being discussed in the police department like informing them about the operational planning of the police department. The greatest threat that this business pose is the wide dealing of syringes; the dealers do not care about the syringes being used or unused, they just sell them and the addicted are in so want of them that they also do not care about the syringe and this is a major reason for many incurable diseases that are now a days becoming wide spread in many parts of the country. It is very necessary that a proper operational policing strategy is developed to control this serious and rapidly increasing issue (Ireland, 1996). A proper operational strategy must be designed in order to eliminate this issue from the root. If a weak strategy is designed then it will not be able to overpower the strong network of the illegal drugs business dealers. Like other departments it has become a necessity for the police department as well to design strategies, tactics and techniques and pay a lot of attention towards strategic planning in the past few years because with the advancements in

Monday, August 26, 2019

Philosophy of Sleep and Habit Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Philosophy of Sleep and Habit - Essay Example   Individuals are almost rational in our choices. People make decisions. Being irrationally rational is absurd. Even though sometimes people follow the demands of their desires but when the brain is engaged, people can make rational decisions unless they are oblivious of the knowledge or wisdom needed to make a decision.It is true that most of the choices individuals make in life are habitual. Habits follow desires and people usually like activities that are habitual, because if fulfils their satisfaction. However, not all habits are good for health. To control following the habitual demands, one has to be aware of the habit to make informed and sound decisions. Only after being aware of the consequences of the habit can on engage the reasoning mind and make rational decisions.Even though the concept of reward and penalty might sound or might even appear practicable, it is improper to use financial reward or penalty to install a good habit or give up a bad one by strengthening will power. Decisions are made from a sound and conscious mind. It takes acceptance and will to make a rational decision and filter what to accept as a good habit and discard that regarded as a bad one.Personal commitment contract in an Islamic point of view could mean coming into a personal contract, agreement or covenant with one’s self toward fulfilling a specific task or goal. It is like having a diving interaction with one’s self and promising to accomplish a goal – a goal, which you must commit to henceforth.   

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Continental Europe seeks to combine flexibility with security in its Essay

Continental Europe seeks to combine flexibility with security in its relations with the workforce via a range of measures one of - Essay Example But the criticisms of the policy direct towards the fact that the diversities present at the national level leads to the decline of the ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach that flexicurity model proposes (Muffels, 2008, p.386). The Union has taken various measures for the establishment of the same but question still arise regarding its effectiveness with the outburst of the worst financial crisis in 2008 after the Great Depression in 1930 (Flexicurity: Europe's employment solution?, 2008). The paper will be discussing the flexicurity approach adapted by the European Union along with the discussion of its principles and objectives and with special focus on Germany and Denmark. Highlight will be also given on the youth unemployment problem with reference to the Viking, Laval and Ruffert cases discussing the protection measures of the other countries with respect to the benefits in compliance with Art 3 and 49 of the EC treaty which focuses on the right to establish in any state o r that of single market and rights of provision of services across the European Union. Now the subsequent section will be dealing with the concept of flexicurity. 2. Notion of flexicurity In today’s labor market there is a requirement of rigorous levels of flexibility and adaptability both in the interest of the employers as well as the employees for anticipating and responding to the demands of the market (Flexicurity Pathways, 2007, p.3). The crux of flexicurity is an emerging concept in the European Union and has been considered as a significant approach in the labor market and within the employment paradigm (EU Council: Common 'flexicurity' principles adopted, 2008). The policy has been first generated in the Nordic countries for the purpose of solving European Union’s employment paradox. From the studies of Wilthagen and Rogowski in the year 2002 it gets revealed that flexicurity is regarded as the policy that directs towards a synchronized platform that boosts la bor market flexibilities, work organizations as well as labor relations with security provision for the weak group of people inside and outside the labor market. The authors highlight that flexibility and security can be achieved through focus on coordination. They stress that initial jolt will be derived from the macro level actors like government and social partners. Implementation will be established on all levels of the economy with different means of flexibility complementing each other with corresponding varied security forms (Meyer, 2009, p.87). From the early 2000s, the European Union policy of flexicurity included an amalgamation of easy hiring and firing rules benefiting the unemployed and following a pro labor market policy (Flexicurity: Europe's employment solution?, 2008). 3. Underlying principles of flexicurity The European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (Eurofound) has been established in the year 1975 working on the area of working co nditions, living conditions and industrial relation ( Agencies and other European bodies, n.d.). The EU body while drafting policies limited itself while applying flexicurity policies with some common principles. The common principles which the flexicurity model proposes is

Saturday, August 24, 2019

World War I Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

World War I - Essay Example Firstly, no other war has involved governments, societies and populations of the participating nations in its service to such an extent. It was truly a war of nations marked by tremendous enthusiasm, youthful volunteerism, and industrial mobilization, a mixture of anxiety and elation and nationalism (Bartov, n.p). The war demonstrated the power and intellect of the modern and industrialized states and accompanied drastic political and social changes. It brought the whole nation to the home front; men, women, soldiers, government, and ministers everyone was involved in it. The war evoked the sense of patriotism no other war had been able to bring out, and it reorganized societies to participate in it in an economic, social and spiritual sense (Bartov, n.p). People believed and supported their nations at the cost of their lives because they believed that the victory of their country was worth the cost. â€Å"All the horrors of all the ages were brought together; not only, armies but w hole populations were thrust into the midst of them.† (MacElroy 16). Second most important reason for it being called a total war was its impact on the industrial revolution. It was the first global industrial war which was dominated by industrial weaponry, tanks, machine guns and militarism. As Omer Bartov has described in the first few pages of chapter 1 of his book, â€Å"Mirrors Of Destruction† that World War I brought with itself a new style of warfare not even perceived by the people who were fighting it (Bartov, n.p). The war had in itself an extraordinary expression of devotion not just to the nationalism but also to the notion of the war itself (Bartov, n.p). 2. Why World War I was considered different than conflicts in previous decades? World War I was considered different because it changed the tactics used by all countries earlier. It was the first time modern machinery, trenches and poison gas was used on the battlefield (â€Å"World War I†). This wa r was marked with an era of change brought by it as everything was changed from uniforms to training of soldiers. Particular battalions were used to fight this special battle, and it was the first conflict in which attrition was used against the enemy. Field's artillery was used to defend the enemy. The entire way of fighting battle was changed. Even the international system was completely transformed. On one side, dictatorship emerged out of the war, whereas on the other side, a communist movement emerged backed by the Soviet Union. It was at this time that America became a world power, and the British Empire lost its status from being the world power to the second-class power (â€Å"World War I†). Moreover, the war brought with it the break of the major participators when it was decided at the peace conference of 1919 to break the defeated central powers (â€Å"World War I†). WWI was marked with an industrial revolution faced by no other war before and was fought on such a huge scale that no other war had incorporated so many participators as world war I did. The consequences and effects of this war outspread to every corner of the land, and the specialized armies at the front contained members of every social group and region of the country. 3. WHY WAS THIS WAR CALLED TO BE A WAR WITHOUT END? World War I was a war colossal by its very nature. The war never ended in its real essence but gave birth to many unfinished stories. It brought with it massive destruction, killing of millions of people, collapse of four major empires and devastation of many continents, and its repercussions spread to many nations. It is called a war without end because it paved the road to World War II

Friday, August 23, 2019

Lan Yu Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Lan Yu - Essay Example In this movie, Chen Handong who is a successful businessperson takes Lan Yu home with him just to have fun. He is clear that all he wants to do is have fun and they will eventually break up. In our society today such is the trend for the opposite gender couples. They are in it for the fun and not the relationship. Lan Yu falls in love with Handong but he finds out that the man is cheating which is the case for opposite gender couples. All form of couples can cheat and this is no different for the gay couples (Kwan, Lan Yu). Make-ups and break-ups are prevalent in opposite gender couples. People break-up and later in life, their paths cross and they decide to try it again. This is no different for the gay couples as seen in this movie. Handong is worried that Lan Yu has been caught up in the violence in Tiananmen Square and looks for him. This was after their first break-up and he takes him back. When anyone wants to settle they may have doubts about their current partner and this may spill over to refusing to settle down or changing the partner. This is an experience that is faced by both the opposite gender couples and gay couples. Handong has an affair with Jingping because he is not sure if he wants to settle down with Lan Yu (Kwan, Lan Yu). The movie Lan Yu has depicted homosexuality as a socially accepted norm where Lan Yu and Handong’s sister hold a welcome-home party for Handong. Hangdong’s family shows great support for the couple’s relationship. The real situation in china is different. Families due to the following reasons do not support LTGB groups in this country. According to tradition, a man must marry the opposite gender in order to have children, which is considered a very important aspect of life. The wife is also supposed to care for the husband and thus many families do not allow this kind of marriages or relationships to exist. Socially this is not acceptable and most families do not support the idea of one marrying

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Firewalls and Anti-Virus Programs Essay Example for Free

Firewalls and Anti-Virus Programs Essay Electronic Computers are machines that are designed to make the jobs of humans easier. The rise of industrialization made it inevitable for humans to develop such a mechanical object which may lighten tasks that consume a lot of time and thus, need painstaking care. Humans have been successful in this undertaking, but unfortunately, as humans are susceptible to errors, so do are these machines (Copplin). Computers no matter how mechanical they are, have limitations. Sometimes these limitations are made apparent by humans unintentionally, but there are also times when humans design things that are meant to rival the advantage of their own work. As they have created useful programs, they also made not only inutile but also utterly destructive programs. They created viruses or worms that affect computers, in a way that a disease might affect a person. The solution for â€Å"computer illnesses† comes in the form of firewalls and anti-virus software. These are programs that are created to counteract the effects of viruses. They serve to both shield and prevent the entry and artillery when a breach has taken place. This shield function involves filtering of all files coming into the computer while the artillery may include quarantine activities to avoid the spread of any acquired virus (Barrios). As viruses are programs that are meant to reproduce and damage the computer system through multiplication, anti-virus programs are designed to act like healers. They are programs that actively search and destroy viruses or malicious programs in one’s computer. They scan newly downloaded files to assure that there is no entry of infection in the system. Anti-virus programs may be updated as often as the computer owner wishes. This update will enable the program to familiarize itself to developments of new viruses that are spreading or improvement of old ones thus, the security of the system is continuously adjusted and improved to better suit the need of the system (Barrios). There are many available anti-virus programs in the market. Some are installed through CD and others are downloadable without fee from the internet. Two of the most famous anti-virus programs are the Norton anti-virus program and the Mcafee anti-virus program. They were proven by numerous computer users as very effective softwares. They are also affordable and convenient as they offer regular upgrades for the programs on the internet. Like any other programs, there are also disadvantages of anti-virus programs. Anti-virus programs are reactive programs that are designed to respond to the newly developed viruses or threats. This may be considered as a benefit for an immediate cure may be devised and administered readily as response, but there are also facts that point that this nature of anti-virus programs may actually be considered a drawback. Because of this nature, these kinds of programs are prone to false positive results. Since the upgrades are automated, there is a high probability for mistakes. There are anti-virus softwares that take a while before detecting new threats on the net. The shortest time that an anti-virus program may track a threat is three days after it was released on the net. Today’s researchers are still in the process of improving this and gradually reducing it to a smaller number (Hruska) With such a loophole, computer users may resort to another security option. Other than anti-virus programs, they may also opt to install firewalls in their private or corporate networks. The anti-virus programs serve as the artillery while the firewalls are the shield that re put up in defense of the important files saved in the computer hardware. Firewalls are programs designed to protect private networks from unauthorized entry. It prevents other users to access and extract files or information without permission from a main source that is connected to the internet. Huge companies who consider not permitted extraction of information as a cause for concern may utilize firewalls to secure their files (Ranum). Some firewalls are designed to do one or two things. Some installed firewalls protect a personal or a company’s internal network from unwanted interchange from public internet. There are also some that may limit the access from the hosts of the corporate network to public services available on the internet. Still, there are other firewall setup that may support the use of private IP addresses for corporate or internal networks while at the same time share one connection to the public internet (Barbish). As according to the above-mentioned functions, there are many advantages in installing a firewall in one’s computer especially within a corporate network. However, like the anti-virus software, firewalls also have disadvantages. Since there are some firewalls that cannot function as the other does, it makes it impossible to have all the necessary security measures by installing only a firewall. It is not also probable to install more than two firewall programs in one’s computer. In addition, firewalls do not function the way anti-virus softwares do (Caruso) Given that, firewalls are known to work best with an anti-virus software. Where the firewall fails, the anti-virus software continues to work. They are mutually necessary for each other in order to have a tight security for one’s personal computer. Anything that passes the firewall may easily be traced by the anti-virus program the moment it does internal scanning of files in the hard drive. While anti-virus programs are designed to protect a single unit of hard drive, the firewall works well as a barrier from malicious programs and hackers for networked computers (Ranum n,p). It also acts as a screen that keeps the private network safe from malicious users in the internet. Some users get confused on what should be applied to their computers. While it is already quite depressing for single unit users, large corporations are boggled by this dilemma. If in any case the threat gets past both the anti-virus program and the firewall, all information that is classified goes out to the public. This is why some large corporations would rather have no internet connection than risk their security (Ranum). Researchers suggested that since one of the two security programs cannot function as the other, it may be effective to use them together. First is to install a firewall that will keep all threats out. Second is to put in an effective anti-virus program which can trace new viruses on the net the fastest among all other anti-virus software. Then install another firewall program for better measures in case both initial programs were breached. This way, the trespassing users in the public internet may be kept out as well as the malicious programs that may destroy the whole system of the computer (Cheswick 90). It may then be concluded that the desire of man to make work lighter have lead to the advent of computers and other technological advancements. However, due to the unquenched desire to improve things, man has also created things that can damage or destroy what has been created. This way man can once again build something that may respond to the destruction that has been invented. In the case of computers, the things that destroy are the viruses designed by some programmers, while the things that respond to the damages are the anti-virus programs and firewalls. The firewall protects a personal or corporate network from any breach by unauthorized person who has internet access. It protects classified information from spreading without permission and also prevents spread of malicious programs that may enter through the public network. On the other hand, the anti-virus acts as support in cases where the threat has already entered the system. The other is the guard while the other is the cleaner. These two computer innovations compliment each other in keeping the files and the entire personal or corporate computer system safe and well guarded from any kind of malicious threats. Works Cited Barbish, Joseph J. â€Å"Firewalls†. 2009. FreeBSD. 26 January 2009 http://www. freebsd. org/doc/en/books/handbook/firewalls. html#FIREWALLS-INTRO. Barrios, Barclay. â€Å"Antivirus Programs†. 2008. Rutgers Writing Program. 26 January 2009 http://66. 102. 1. 104/scholar? hl=tllr=q=cache:_zUTrdU13U8J:getit. rutgers. edu/tutorials/viruses/media/virus. doc+meaning+of+anti+virus+programs. Caruso, Ronald D. MD. â€Å"Personal Computer Security†. 2003. Radio Graphics. 26 January 2009 http://radiographics. rsnajnls. org/cgi/content/full/23/5/1329. Cheswick, William R. Internet Security. Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1996. Copplin, John. â€Å"An Illustrated History of Computers†. 2002. Computer Science Lab. 26 January 2009 http://www. computersciencelab. com/ComputerHistory/History. htm. Hruska, Joel. â€Å"Antivirus Programs Unreliable During Critical Coverage Gap†. 30 November 2008. Ars Techinica. 26 January 2009 http://arstechnica. com/news. ars/post/20081130-av-programs-unreliable-during- critical-coverage-gap. html. Ranum, Marcus J. â€Å"Thinking about Firewalls†. 1993. Trusted Information Systems, Inc. 26 January 2009 http://www. vtcif. telstra. com. au/pub/docs/security/ThinkingFirewalls/ThinkingFirewalls. html.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

State V. Steele. Police administration Essay Example for Free

State V. Steele. Police administration Essay Julian Steele worked as a police officer. In 2009, a robbery took place and the police were involved in the matter. After weeks of investigation, the police traced the vehicle involved in the robbery to one Miss Alice Maxton. Julian, being a police officer got involved in the case. Julian arrested Maxton’s children, taking them away from school. Julian then interrogated one of the three kids, compelling the kid to admit to being involved in the robbery. Julian threatened the kid by telling the kid that if he did not confess to the robbery, his mum would be put to jail. Scared, the kid confessed to the crime and was put to jail. Steele managed to convince Alice to have sex with him, so that he could foresee the release of his son. Certain prosecutors learned of Steele’s misconduct and accused him on grounds of intimidation and kidnap (Gaines, 2012,). Judging by Steele’s behavior, it is correct to say that Steele was involved in police misconduct. According to the law, officers are free to arrest people. This fact discredits the charges of abduction. However, the law does not allow police officers to use false confessions to put people to prison. Steele knew that the kid could not have possibly committed the crime, yet he went ahead to imprison the minor using the minor’s confession as prove. Intimidation is part of a police officer’s work. This fact discredits the claims of intimidation against Steele. However, police officers are not allowed to make threats during questioning. Steele made threats. He threatened the kid that his mum would be put to prison, and that he (the kid) would be separated from his siblings. These threats compelled the kid to admit to a crime he had not committed. This was against the police code of conduct (Worrall, 2012,). Steele is an officer that went against the police code of conduct. As a result, Steele should not be given a second chance. Instead, he should be asked to hand in a resignation letter, before his transfer to prison. This would in turn serve as a warning to other officers. References Gaines, L. K., Worrall, J. L. (2012). Police administration. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar/Cengage. Source document

The application of the principles of adult learning

The application of the principles of adult learning The only kind of learning which significantly influences behaviour is self-discovered or self-appropriated learning truth that has been assimilated in experience Carl Rogers. The aim of this essay is to explore three of the main principles of teaching adults and to apply them to a learning group, in this case, teaching general Art and Design to post compulsory education learners in a sixth form college. The following principles are discussed: 1. Learning should take account of individual differences in learners capacities and styles and be self paced 2. Precise learning goals and objectives should be specified in advance 3. The learner must practise what she/he has learned. 1. Learning should take account of individual differences in learners capacities and styles and be self paced In general, adult learners are self directed, experienced and have a desire to develop skills. All students are different though, and the teacher needs to take account of this by understanding their needs and working with them to achieve their own learning goals, rather than telling them what to learn and how to learn it. Lumby states that the desire to meet the full range of student needs means that the curriculum grows organically by responding to the community (Lumby, 2001 p115). In order to facilitate response, it is important that the teacher helps the students identify their own learning need. The teacher can begin by outlining what is required to achieve the desired outcomes but the learners must be given the experience of making their own choices. A teacher centred method could be followed where there is a preference for speed of learning rather than depth of learning, whereby students are passively lectured to, however, the learners may listen but in listening they may not learn what the teacher intends (Rogers, 2002 p222). A more suitable approach, particularly in regards to the subject of Art, is an interactive method where the learner is involved in the planning of his or her own learning. Whilst the teacher should provide clear instructions and guidance, the learner should also be encouraged to take ownership and be in control of the learning, participating, and making it an empowering experience. Art should be about experimenting and exploring. To begin with, the teacher should suggest fun, easy art projects where the learner will see results. This will help the adult to become less self conscious about their art and encourage them, in their own time, to try more complex techniques without fear of failure. Art should be taught as a gradual process, adapted to a students capabilities and confidence. The teacher should draw on the learners prior knowledge and experience and not just dictate the subject; Fairclough expresses that the subject being taught should never take priority over the learners (Fairclough 2008 p4). Teaching adults in less formal, relaxed ways and encouraging the class to talk and break the ice by using group work and discussion helps students to relax and enjoy themselves. This will provide an innovative approach, which will improve flexibility and make lessons more interesting and less rigid. Students can often learn just as much from each other as the teacher. This will help foster a feeling of inclusiveness within the group whereby students who are less confident can seek support from others that are more advanced. It is valuable for the teacher to learn about the students on the first day so that there is an understanding of their skills and interests in art, and what experience they have. These details will help to understand their learning strengths and weaknesses, enabling the teacher to adapt to their needs. Each learner will have different approaches to learning so it is important to understand the student and tailor ways of conducting individual feedback, which encourages learning and also enables the student to feel positive about their progress. 2. Precise learning goals and objectives should be specified in advance. It is of the imperative that goals and objectives are stated in advance as they ensure understanding of the learning process, offer motivation and provide a framework for evaluation by the teacher and learner; If goals are left vague, neither party is sure if they are achieving anything or not (Rogers, 2002 p146). All lessons must have aims and objectives and the teacher must explain them clearly in order to get a successful learning outcome. This is important in learning because it provides structure and enables both the teacher and student to plan and prepare in advance to ensure meaningful lessons. Aims describe the overall intention of the lesson, and provide a plan to illustrate direction. The aims should be brief and should be stated simply and concisely to summarise the proposed outcome. Objectives define the knowledge and skills that students should have developed by the end of the lesson. Objectives should consider performance, conditions and criteria. Objectives describe the learning that you wish to take place. They are more specific than aims and will explain, in more detail what the student will learn during the lesson. They will tell you whether the work will be done individually, in pairs, or in groups, over what time period and what resources will be used. Aims and objectives help both the learners and the teacher evaluate the work that has taken place during the lesson and whether the learning outcomes have been achieved. Art lessons should be fun. Most people think they have accomplished something when they learn a new skill. It is important that the student finishes the lesson knowing that they have learnt at least one thing. This could be anything such as sketching or basic colour theory. Aims and objectives can help to identify what areas may need more improvement. By evaluating the aims and objectives adult learners can work on the areas that need development. 3. The learner must practise what he/she has learned Art is a practical subject and some students will have greater capabilities than others, however, most will need to practise hard to improve their skills. In 1984 David Kolb explored the theory of the significance of experience in learning. He stressed that Learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience (Light, G., Cox, R., Calkins, S. 2009 p55). The teaching environment involves more than just providing knowledge and skills. The student must want to learn, want to use their abilities and actually do so. They must want to develop as a person. To do this the learner must practise what they have learned and this need to practice applies to both the student and the teacher. At the beginning of each lesson it is valuable that the teacher recaps the learning outcomes from the last lesson. The student should be able to build on the previous weeks techniques and skills learnt. In the case of a complex or difficult task, the teacher might initially want to give specific warm up exercises to practise using the skills. During the lesson, it might be suitable for the teacher to continue practising their own skills and working on his or her own piece of artwork at the same time as the students. The more the student practises, the more developed the work will become. The teacher should give positive feedback and support during the lesson. Art shouldnt be a competitive subject and there is no right or wrong. Art is about the creative process and not the final product. The students should recognise that the more they practise their art, the more focused they will become. In time, with practice, their skills will develop and their confidence will improve. Art should be taught from different perspectives to help students relate to it better. The teacher should find out what learners are interested in and use that as a way to increase their interest in art. Some tasks require repetition and it is important that they approach to practise remains flexible to change the programme to keep students motivated and enthusiastic. Conclusion Adults need to know why they are learning, what the benefits of learning it are and what they risk by not learning it. Adults need to take control of their learning. Learning needs to draw upon the learners own experience. It needs to be timely and relevant and focus on what is useful in their situations. Adult learning is life centred and focuses on tasks and problems rather than on subjects. They must have motivation to learn. This may be extrinsic but is more likely to be intrinsic. Adult learning is emphasised through life and experience. An experience that results in changed behaviour. Ultimately, adults learn best by doing. Teachers must focus on assessing individual learning styles, motivation, past experiences and the students willingness to apply the learning. A joint effort between teacher and learner will achieve the most success and benefit everyone involved in the activity.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Lord Of The Flies :: essays research papers

Lord of flies Essay   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In the “Lord of Flies'; William Golding does tell us a story about a group of English boys stranded on a Pacific Island, in the literal level but in a more allegorical level he tells a story about corruption of innocence, brutality/savagery and victimisation/prejudice through the characters of Ralph, Jack, Piggy and Simon. Interesting stylistic features such as symbolism and omnipotent narrator make this story more than just a simple story.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ralph can be seen as a fair head boy, tall, well built and the major character of the novel. In a deeper sense Ralph represents Law, order and authority but not in a tyrannic way, he also represents democracy and justice. It is also through his eyes we see loss of innocence. “…Ralph wept for the end of innocence, the darkness of man’s heart…'; In the above quote Ralph cries after piggy is killed.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jack can be seen as a cruel, ugly, skinny, and the leader of choir at first then the leader of hunters. In a deeper sense Jack represents dictatorship and a primitive hunter. His leadership depends on in the ability to threaten and frighten those under him. His victory over piggy represents the triumph of violence over intellect, his knife represents death and destruction. It is through jack we see Brutality and savagery.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Piggy is a typical obese young boy with brains, but in more he can be seen as a boy with civilised and scientific mind. His scientific mind can be seen when he talks about the beast: “ I know there isn’t not beast- not with claws and all that…'; It is through Piggy we see victimisation/prejudice. “Shut up fatty!';(Jack) “ You let me speak I got the conch…'; In the above quote we see piggy being the victim because of his low class.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Simon is a sensitive, epileptic and religious boy who is wiling to work and is brave in the face of physical danger. He is right about “beast'; but is wrong in underestimating the power of this evil. He discovers in the conversation with lord of flies the even he contains the evil within and it cannot be destroyed physically. Simon the Saint was the only hope for the new society but unfortunately he is mistaken for the beast and killed by the savages including Piggy and Ralph. ‘What I mean is... Maybe it’s only us.’ In this quote Simon shows us his common sense and reasoning.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Gender Stereotypes in Science and Technology Essay -- Media Stereotype

Gender Stereotypes in Science and Technology The experiences we have and the ideas we formulate as children can and do have a tremendous impact on what we do with our lives as adults. One thing that we studied during this course was the differences between toys that boys play with and those that girls play with. When little boys are given things to play with like chemistry sets and erector sets, they are given tools to develop skills like mechanical ability and spatial perception. More importantly, in my opinion, this sets up a stereotype about what activities are suitable for boys and which activities are suitable for girls. Just as boys who play with dolls are seen as being unusual, little girls who do "boy things" and play with boys toys are seen as being weird and are therefore discouraged from doing so. When I first began researching this project I was looking for information on tomboys. I was hoping to answer the following question: How does having the label of a tomboy as a child effect what career choices a woman makes as an adult? It was my belief that if young girls think of tomboys in a negative light, girls who are labeled tomboys by their peers will be discouraged from engaging in activities that perpetuates that image of them. If these activities include playing with legos and building forts, then women who may otherwise have gone into technological fields like engineering and computer science will be deterred by the fact that these fields are sterotypically male. An initial literature search yielded disappointing results. The articles which I found fell into basically two categories: first-person narratives about growing up as a tomboy in magazines like Redbook and Southern Living and a few scattered art... ..., and a new generation of women with female role models began entering college. This idea about the gradual shift in beliefs that is currently going on probably explains why I was not able to find any current research on "tomboyism.' in academic journals. Ideas about gender, particularly for women, perhaps not as much for men, have become increasingly fluid in recent years. Women who play sports and enjoy 'male' activities are not only no longer seen as unusual, but are actually seen as having the preferred image. Many advertising firms have been specifically marketing the "tomboy look", because that image of women is now the 'in' image. Though women of my generation have grown up with the word "tomboy' in our vocabularies, perhaps the next generation of young girls will not even realize that playing sports and fixing cars represents gender deviancy on their part.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Whats Power Worth? :: essays research papers fc

What’s Power Worth?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When we think about air pollution and its sources we generally call to mind the things we see and smell daily. We recall the stench of diesel fumes, the plumes of automobile exhaust, or maybe the belching smoke from factories. Instead of these common culprits, maybe we should instead think about the light switch, the computer, the television, or maybe our air conditioners. We use these items everyday without a thought to the possible ramifications. These familiar household items contribute more to air pollution in our community than all of the aforementioned polluters combined. Their use requires electricity and that electricity is provided by power plants.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Electricity producing power plants are the largest source of air pollution nationwide (Izaak). More than half of the nation’s power plants produce their electricity by burning coal. These coal-fired plants in particular are responsible for the majority of the most dangerous pollutants emitted by the electric power industry. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), coal-fired plants generate, â€Å"96 percent of sulfur dioxide emissions, 93 percent of nitrogen oxide emissions, 88 percent of carbon dioxide emissions, and 99 percent of the mercury emissions† emitted by the entire power industry (sierraclub).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The power industry’s emissions result in ozone smog, reduced visibility conditions, and acid rain. Additionally, their released mercury is toxic and is absorbed by humans through the consumption of fish. â€Å"More than 70 percent of fish advisories issued [are] for mercury contamination† (sierra club). Mercury can have devastating health consequences for children and women of childbearing age. According to the American Lung Association, â€Å"Children are the most susceptible to the detrimental effects posed by air pollutants [†¦]. In Virginia, 1,256,936 children live within 30 miles of a power plant† (Clear). These close-in areas feel the greatest health impacts.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The environmental and human health hazards produced by coal-fired power plants are not a new revelation. The Government recognized decades ago the serious impact of all fossil fuel burning industries. Finally, in 1970, the Environmental Protection Agency was formed. Later that same year Congress passed the Clean Air Act with the intention of significantly reducing airborne pollutants. According to Federal officials, in the past 35 years â€Å"emissions of pollutants have dropped 51 percent nationwide† (Springston). Unfortunately, when the Clean Air Act was created, a loophole was included that â€Å"grand fathered† the electric industry. Pre-existing plants were exempted because Congress believed that their useful life was only 30 to 40 years.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Child Development Stages

Unit 201 Child and young person development Outcome 3: Understand the potential effects of transitions on children and young people 3. 1 Identify the transitions experienced by most children and young people 3. 3 Describe with examples how transitions may affect children and young people’s behaviour and development Under each heading, explain how each aspect may impact on a child’s behaviour & development, giving examples.  ·Puberty: Growth spurts, early bloomers, late bloomers, jealousy from late bloomers, personal odour, self conscious of body changing. Males, become taller and stronger, body changes , body odour may develop and he may need to start using deodorant. They become moody at times and parents need to try and understand this to help there adolescent cope with changes. The most important factors in the adolescence through puberty is peers, family and school. Any disturbance in these 3 factors can be a heavy burden on this growing child. This could lead to depression, drugs, criminal acts and more.  ·Starting school- From pre – school to primary (Reception class). Child could feel nervous and feeling insecure. May start primary with no friends from pre-school. New faces, new friendships. Learning to dress themselves for P. E, more independence needed. How may this affect the child’s behaviour and development? Starting school -( cont from above) If child J slips through the cracks, is not offered reassurance by his teacher or by parents, he will continue to feel left out. He will then become withdrawn and isolate himself from everyone and everything. He will fall back in class and because he has isolated himself from peers, he might start to feel that he is on his own. He will then start to enjoy his own company. He will not have any social skills and will not move beyond this point. If child J starts school and this kind of behaviour is picked up early & he is offered reassurance from his parents, teacher and all that are a positive role in his life things could be very different. The more positive the parents are, the more the child will be. He will thrive in school and be able to communicate well with the teacher and peers.  ·Moving class or school – Moving from reception class to year one. Children start to follow the national curriculum and are often taught more formally. It can effect a child who is used to learning through play, suddenly they have to work in a formal way for longer periods. More learning , less free time. Change of teacher, teaching assistant ( have a supply teacher). Affects learning, self esteem, not wanting to go to school. Eg. ) We moved to England when my son was 4 years old. On arrival he attended primary school A, he did reception class and year one at this school. By the time he got to year 2, I felt the teacher was very laid back and I was not happy with her method of teaching. I then moved him out of school A in the middle of year 2 and moved him to school B. It was a different area. He had to then start all over again, new school, start to make a whole new circle of friends. In school B this is where the bullying started. He kept it very quiet and it was not till I was approached by one of the mothers at the school, she informed me that my son was being bullied. I thought I was doing the best for my son by moving him into a new school because all I wanted was for him to thrive. Moving school was not a good choice, instead of thriving, he was unhappy, it affected his self esteem and he became withdrawn. I should have considered my sons happiness. This is better Kamilla, you have used a good example.  ·Starting Secondary School – There are differences in the curriculum and the way subjects are taught. Some children may find that there close friends have transferred into different schools, so they must develop new friendships. Although transitions can be difficult, moving on can also be a positive and exciting experience eg) Biggest to smallest, timetables, many schools feed friendships, change of classes, change of subjects, start to carry bags, finding there way around the school. Eg. ) The quiet shy male /female student may fall into the clutches of the group of peers. To avoid being bullied or to try and fit in with the â€Å" In kids† he/ she will go to the ends of the earth to avoid being made fun of. In some schools there is initiation. Some children lose their confidence right at the start of secondary school. . 2 Identify transitions that only some children and young people may experience e. g bereavement 3. 3 Describe with examples how transitions may affect children and young people’s behaviour and development Under each heading, explain how each aspect may impact on a child’s behaviour & development, giving examples.  ·Bereavement – Following a death of a parent or someone close to a child can be traumatic. If child was living with one parent this may mean a change in carer and perhaps a move into residential or foster care. Loss of parent is devastating . Keep an eye on change of behaviour . Grief goes through several changes Eg) Anger, denial, withdrawn and crying all the time. It may affect memory, concentration and learning. This challenge lasts for months and can last for two or more years. It can affect children in different ways. Eg. ) There are children who continue to do well in school following the death of a loved one. These children go unnoticed. They my use the tasks of school work or sports to block out painful feelings or thoughts, or they may feel a need to excel because of a feeling that the parent is watching them and will want to show the deceased parent how much they care in this way. This type of response to loss can result in stress – related health problems later on in life, as well as potential physical and emotional difficulties from unresolved grief. How to Help Maintain routines in school Be realistic about expectations for academic achievement Allow make-up opportunities Remember that some children continue to have academic difficulties up to 2 years following a death, and sometimes beyond Make exceptions for sports participation†¦ sports can help with the healing process Refer to the school counselor Communicate with the parents Respect the child's need to grieve Avoid telling the child to â€Å"Move on† or â€Å"Get over it†. Create an emotionally safe classroom Learn about children's grief Recognize that intense grief can come at developmental stages, years after a death occurs Be patient Affirm the person, regardless of academic performance  ·new baby – The older children experience change, Younger children often find changes tin family life because of the new arrival, particularly difficult to cope with. Eg) My son was was an only child till he was 10years old. We always did everything thing together, I over smothered him and therefore he was not an independent child. Once his sister was born, he became mature over night and became more independent. I feel this was a positive change in his life. His little sister looks up to him. Think also about a child that feels left out, how may that affect their behaviour and development The first child may experience a range of emotions, from excitement to jealousy or even resentment. Younger toddlers are unable to verbalize their feelings, and their behaviours may regress after the new child is born. They might suck their thumb or drink a bottle, forget their recent potty training skills and communicate baby talk in an effort to get your attention. Older toddlers and kids might express their feelings by testing your patience, misbehaving, throwing tantrums, or refusing to eat. These problems are usually short lived and a little preparation can help and older child adjust to the idea of welcoming a new sibling.  ·moving house – A family may move house either into a poorer environment where there may be high incidences of crime or into a better area where they are more open spaces. A child that moves into a new area will leave behind friends and extended families. How will this affect their behaviour and development A new house, new environment, new area can affect a child in many different ways. A new surrounding depending, can affect a child by making them feel unsettled. Unfamiliar faces, unfamiliar scents, unfamiliar bedrooms can set a child back. The breakdown of connections with peers, discontinuation of group activities, distress and worries related to a new environment are potentially psychologically distressing events for young children. Frequent exposure to these events can be stressful and confusing and may affect their psychosocial wellbeing, thus increasing their intention toward ending their life if they are unable to cope.  ·parent divorce & separation – Both familiar routines and lifestyles will change. Children will become more independent when there is only one parent. Sometimes they think it is there fault. Some children become withdrawn from everyone. Some children rebel, school work may suffer. Do you have any examples Eg) Child Z was 13years old when his parents got separated. His body was going through major changes hormonally. Once his parents separated he became a different child. He automatically became the man of the house. He rebelled against his mother, had no respect, came home when he pleased, his school work suffered. He disrespected everyone around and was very easily influenced. He got into trouble with the law due to peer pressure. When you put all this kind of behaviour, this child was seeking attention. His grandparents intervened, sat him down and had a one to one with him. He informed them that he felt that his parents had split up because of him, he felt that he couldn’t bare to see his mum in tears all the time. He also mentioned that there was no stability in the house and it was very unsettling for him, hence his behaviour.  ·Fostered/ looked after children – If fostered because parents can’t cope eg) because of drug abuse, alcohol abuse. Foster children are normally placed miles away from where they grew up. Issues of distance. Foster kids are normally moved around due to behaviour or reasons out of their control. Some children experience feelings being unsettled. Some children are already damaged before they are even fostered eg) Due to unsettled background. They make take several behaviours with them, insecure , difficult to make friends – lack of trust. Good Well done Kamilla. You have expanded your answers, but occasionally didn’t really say what affect the transition had on behaviour and development. I will chat to you about this on Tuesday morning. See you then Could you leave the comments on your answers please – it shows I am doing my job. Thank you. E assessed 16th October, 2011

Friday, August 16, 2019

Children Reading Essay

â€Å"Children are not reading as much as they should presents danger† As Mr. Russell states, children not reading presents a risk in terms of their learning abilities. I believe Mr. Russell is correct. When children do not read enough, their development of creativity, attention span, imagination and vocabulary are not as developed as they should be. Overall they fail to develop to their full potential because reading comprehension strengthens our brain by making it active. When children’s brains are not at their fullest potential when they get older, it could lead to a lot of problems. They can receive poor grades, have a difficult time when completing assignments, have a low self-esteem and behavior problems, become shy and get easily frustrated. If a whole generation of children grew up to have these issues, it could lead to many problems in society as a whole. â€Å"A book requires that we think, and that is the great adventure to reading.† When we read a book, it forces us to use or brains. It requires us to take every element in the story such as the characters, plot and setting and putting them together to create a theme. Putting together these elements enhances our creativity and forces us to use our intelligence. While reading a book one imagines in their mind what is going on with the story. This visual then enhances our creativity. It also forces us to use our intelligence. The vocabulary and solutions to the problems makes us think. Personally, I think one of the best things about reading something that you enjoy is the adventure that you have while reading. I forget about my everyday issues and enter into a world where my mind can just explore a whole other world that I cannot physically experience myself. The combination of these aspects makes reading an exciting experience.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Learning to Read and Write

Alana Roberts Essay I February 26th, 2013 â€Å"Learning to Read and Write† by Fredrick Douglas is a story about a slave breaking the bondage of ignorance by learning to read and write. During the course of 7 years Douglas discreetly teaches himself to read and write by means of stealing newspapers, trading food with poor white boys for knowledge and books, as well as copying his master’s handwriting. Douglas learning to read gave him extreme awareness of his condition as he says â€Å"†¦I would at times feel that learning to read had been a curse rather than a blessing.It had given me a view of my wretched condition, without the remedy† (Page 168-169). With his new consciousness he suffered with depression envying his fellow slaves for their â€Å"stupidity. † But, like a true underdog, Douglas perseveres and through hope he escapes to the freedom of the North. There’s a quote by Harriet Tubman â€Å"I freed a thousand slaves, and could have freed a thousand more if they had known they were slaves. † Throughout the essay Douglas evaluates his slave master’s ignorance, his fellow slaves ignorance, and most importantly his own.The definition of a slave is â€Å"a person legally owned by another and having no freedom of action or right to property†. Another definition says slave means â€Å"a person under the domination of another person or some habit or influence. † Douglas finds proof of the flawed ideology that is slavery through the book â€Å"The Colombian Orator. † The book validates Douglas’s belief of human rights and gave him ammo to use against slaveholders who thought otherwise. The dilemma in him learning this illuminating information is his inability to figure a way out of slavery.Douglas writes â€Å"It was this everlasting thinking of my condition that tormented me†¦I saw nothing without seeing it, I heard nothing without hearing it† (Page 169). White slav e owners made it unlawful for slaves to read and write, this ignorance kept them in a state of limbo which stopped their evolution. Without the capacity to examine their situation, they did not change their situation and stayed in this wheel of oppression and exploitation. Ignorance also befalls on the oppressors.Douglas sheds light on how slave owners prayed to Christ, went to church every Sunday and yet mistreated people to the upmost degree and punished them for reading. Southerners often justified slavery by saying they were bringing Christianity to slaves. Christianity is a religion based on love and compassion for your fellow man. Since the Europeans did not believe the Africans were worthy to be in the same human category as them they dehumanized them relating them to animals. Although the bible says â€Å"we must never treat any part of God's creation with contempt.When we do, we are indirectly treating our Creator with contempt. † If they did not believe slaves were worthy to be treated as God’s creation then why did they push their religion on them? The answer is to keep them controlled and confused. Europeans stripped Africans of their traditions starting with their name, this in some degree made Africans like blank canvases ready to be painted anew. Christianity gave slaves hope that one day their situation will change if they prayed hard enough and abide by Christ words. It also gave them a brand new vision of what God should look like. White is good, Black is bad.In the Christian bible they saw Jesus as a white man so in turn they could have related the goodness of Christ to the â€Å"goodness† of their masters. Some slaves even argued about whose master was more kind. I guess this is what Douglas was referring to when he called his fellow slaves â€Å"stupid†. I relate the South hypocritical belief system to that of the Catholic Church during Medieval Times. The church dominated everyone’s lives using fear as a means of getting whatever they wanted from its believers. From a very early age, the people were taught that the only way they could get to Heaven was if the Roman Catholic Church approved them.Just like slaves of America many people could not read or write which kept the priests in power. Peasants worked for free on the church land to pay their tithe or to not have the burden of total damnation. The hypocrisy of Christians of the South exemplifies his mistress who he described before as â€Å"Having bread for the hungry, clothes for the naked, and comfort for every mourner that came within her reach† (Page 167). Under the influence of slavery the angelical woman he knew turned into that of a demon in her conquest to prove her superiority over him.With praying to white Jesus not working, Douglas expresses a vulnerable side when talking about contemplating suicide. â€Å"I often found myself regretting my own existence, and wishing myself dead; and but for hope of being free , I have no doubt but that I should have killed myself†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Page 169). To counter this feeling of hopelessness he birthed a new objective, find the meaning of the word abolition and how it related to himself. Douglas speaks on his ignorance as he writes â€Å" It was always used in such connections as to make it an interesting word to me†¦I found it was â€Å"the act of abolishing†; but then I did not know what was to be abolished.Here I was perplexed. † I find it humorously ironic that he is a prime example of what a abolitionist is and going to become but there was a point in time were he didn’t recognize what the word meant. Using context clues Douglas unmask the true meaning of abolition when reading an article on abolishment of slavery in the District of Columbia. In conclusion Fredrick Douglas’s â€Å"Learning to Read and Write† maturely examines the world in which he lived in. Though Douglas was a slave physically he was never a slave mentally.He analyzes and challenges the norm in his quest for freedom; and because of Douglas’s thirst for knowledge he escapes the bondage of ignorance. Douglas also points out that learning doesn’t make the man free but it is how you use this knowledge to obtain freedom. In our day and age we take for granted things like owning a book, going to school, even the simple principle of being who we want to be. Douglas is a hero to Black Americans as well as people who believe knowledge is power. Work Cited Learning to Read and Write by Fredrick DouglasThe Brief McGraw-Hill Reader http://www. sparknotes. com/lit/narrative/themes. html Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass http://www. historylearningsite. co. uk/medieval_church. htm The Medieval Church http://www. goodreads. com/author/quotes/18943. Frederick_Douglass Fredrick Douglas Quotes http://www. billygraham. org/articlepage. asp? articleid=6217 Christian view on treatment of animals http://www. cliffs notes. com/study_guide/literature/life-of-frederick-douglass/critical-essays/douglass-canonical-status-heroic-tale. html

Is Hip-Hop Culture Harming Our Youth?

Is Hip-Hop Culture Harming Our Youth? Hip-hop culture is everywhere. The culture, which encompasses rapping, deejaying, break-dancing and graffiti-writing, has become so popular that it has entered mainstream fashion and modern language. It doesn't stop there. The culture permeates everything from TV commercials to toys to video games. Currently, there is even a hip-hop exhibit at the Brooklyn Museum of Art. You name it, and hip hop is there representing. However, hip hop's most potent form is its rap music–embraced by urban Blacks and suburban Whites alike.It is raw self-expression that sometimes features profane lyrics, misogyny and violence. The music, along with rap videos that often present a disturbing mix of rap, hip-hop dance styles, fashion and language, leave many people asking: â€Å"Is hip-hop culture harming our youth? â€Å". â€Å"The hip-hop culture is just like electricity,† civil rights leader the Rev. Al Sharpton told JET. â€Å"It can be used nega tively or positively. The same electric current that lights up your house can also electrocute you.It is the misuse of hip-hop culture to attack our women and promote violence. We must encourage the proper use of hip-hop culture. We are all influenced by the hip-hop generation. † Sharpton, who recently hosted a special summit on social responsibility in the hip-hop industry, labeled gangsta rappers â€Å"well-paid slaves. † Advertisement â€Å"Don't let some record executive tell you that cursing out your mama is in style. Anytime you perpetuate a slave mentality that desecrates women and that desecrates our race in the name of a record†¦. I consider you a well-paid slave. Sharpton labeled the fashion of these rappers–loose-fitting pants and sneakers without shoelaces–prison clothes. Sharpton was joined at the summit by some of the industry's superstars, including Master P, Sean â€Å"Puffy† Combs, Chuck D and RZA. No Limit Records' CEO-rapper Master P apologetically admitted that some of his lyrics might be offensive to women. â€Å"Everything that came from me like that came out of ignorance. I hope to edit myself in the future,† he reportedly said during the event. However, he asserted, â€Å"I don't believe any form of entertainment is harming our youth.It is up to parents to raise their own children and teach them. Blaming entertainment is a scapegoat. † Dr. C. DeLores Tucker, chair of the National Political Congress of Black Women, Inc. , who has been a strong critic of hip-hop culture for more than a decade, continues to cite its reported negative influence over our youth. â€Å"The glorification of pornography, wanton disregard for civil authority, misogynistic disrespect for women and a penchant for violence are the unintended impact of hip-hop culture on today's youth,† the activist revealed. I say unintended, because hip hop †¦ was intended to celebrate the revival of the age-old rhym ed recitations of life's problems and aspirations set to music. † Unfortunately, somewhere along the way, some unscrupulous elements hijacked this influential conduit to our youth and loaded it with the evil and debasing, hate-driven messages in the lyrics we now know as gangsta rap. Hence the artistry of the rappers in the streets is used by the gangstas in the suites to spread cultural garbage among our youth. Hip-hop music mogul Russell Simmons, who dubs himself the â€Å"grandfather of hip hop,† says the culture has been helpful in allowing others to understand Blacks' inner-city plight. â€Å"It is not going to go away. I will stand by the door to keep it from being censored. It is easy to try to put a lid on what you don't like. But the real test, if you are freedom-loving people, is to protect even that which we don't like from the censorship by the government,† he explained. He points out the positive contributions from the hip-hop culture. The slam poetr y settings evolved out of the hip-hop community. Some of it does not have any curse words. Young folks have found a way to express themselves that was really inspired by rap. Kids are writing. They are thinking; brilliant thoughts are coming out in this creative poetry. † Concludes Simmons, â€Å"The hip-hop culture will evolve in ways that will be known as a significant art. The rap artists are not the poets that they are yet to become, but they are indeed poets. â€Å"

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Of mice and men - A comparison of the opening scenes of the film and the beginning of the book Essay Example for Free

‘Of mice and men’ – A comparison of the opening scenes of the film and the beginning of the book Essay Fiction (1033) , Book (985) , John Steinbeck (629) , Of Mice and Men (560) company About StudyMoose Contact Careers Help Center Donate a Paper Legal Terms & Conditions Privacy Policy Complaints A comparison of the opening scenes of the film and the beginning of the book ‘Of mice and men’ is set in southern California at the time of the great depression (late 1920 and early 30’s), the basis of the story is about 2 men George and Lenny, who are two workers who travel from place to place finding work on ranches, so they can earn there 50 bucks a month. George is the leader out of the two he looks after Lenny, sorts out where they go and what they do and eat. Lenny is a very big and strong man, but he is very dumb and could not look after himself, he his at heart a nice, harmless man but likes colourful, nice feeling things, so he is just like a small child. Lenny gets them into trouble a lot, he likes to touch nice things and when he does people get the wrong idea and like at the start of the book and film gets accused of rape, and at the end causes a death of a woman. Like most writers or directors, John Steinbeck and Gary Sinise try to grab the readers or viewer’s attention. Even though the novel and film are based on the same story, they use different techniques and ways to try and get the audiences attention. In the novel John Steinbeck uses a lot of description of his settings and this is how he tries to keep the audience’s imagination going. For example in the first two pages of the novel, he uses a strong descriptive and a strong style of language to try and give an effect of a natural, calm and peaceful atmosphere, also when describing the willow pool he tries and puts as much detail in as possible, as this area of land is one of the most important places in the story as this is where Steinbeck starts the story and ends it in a similar place. It’s quite amazing how Steinbeck manages to turn a violent and threatening scene into a calm, relaxing place and an almost peaceful time. I think that the first set of settings is set in a spring/summer theme as they are talking about there dream which is seen as the American dream of this time, so this also relates to life in the late boom and depression of the 1920’s. The beginning is used to try and introduce the two main characters portraying Lenny as the leader and it seems that he is like a father to Lenny who is portrayed as a small child who cannot control what he is doing. George also knows he has to take the role as the father or older brother and has to keep rules and tells him what to do, e.g. when they are drinking from the lake Lenny keeps his head in the water and is just guzzling the water down, then George says; â€Å"For god sake don’t drink so much†, and also he checks if the water is safe by making sure that its is running although George is of little intelligence him self he knows how to stay alive and live well. Gary Sinise tries to grab the audience’s attention quite differently at the beginning of the film as he uses a dramatic sequence of George and Lenny sitting in the luggage holder of a train, and you see him thinking back to what happened at Weed. When this is happening the light fades over Georges face from the cracks in the compartments wooden walls, this effect of the light streaming across his face gives an imaginary sense of prison bars. During Georges flashbacks you see them running fast and out of breath down a field full of long grass, and it keeps flashing back on Georges face in the train giving you a sense of distress instead of the calming effect of the novel. It then flashes to a pretty woman in a red dress that has a rip going down the bottom of it, the air flows through her dress and hair as she is running down a field. This scene really is exciting and full of tension to the viewer, which contrasts totally to the calm and peaceful opening of the book. Next you she a bunch of workers in a field, and they hear the girl’s screams. The workers on horse follow carrying shotguns. This contrasts to the life of today against nearly a century ago, as nowadays Lenny would have been arrested and put to a fair trial but back then they would have just killed Lenny on the spot. This scene puts people on the edges of their seats giving a sense of suspense; this is how a good director is able to keep the audiences attention to the film. The scene of the willow pool is quite like the scene in the book it gives a more relaxed effect from the previous suspense scenes, as they hide neck deep under the overflowing bush weed, and luckily the workers lose them. When we see George and Lenny getting there work cards it proves the fact that this is in the 1930’s as there were a lot of job shortages and you had to go to a job office and see if any jobs were available, most people would take any job there was, because of the depression. This then gives us a slight historical background of the time they are in. George in the book is firstly described as â€Å"small and quick, dark of face with restless eyes and sharp, strong features†. George being described as having restless eyes gives an impression that he is quite alert and a quick thinker of what to do in troubled times. Lenny on the other hand is described quite differently: â€Å"Huge man, shapeless face with large, pale eyes, with wide sloping shoulders; and he walked heavily, dragging his feet a little, the way a bear drags his paws†. â€Å"†¦the way a bear drags his paws† Lenny is being described as an animal which shows that he is a slow and clumsy both physical and mentally. The characters in the film are unlike the ones in the book as they are not physically opposite. Lenny is only slightly taller than George, but the behaviours of these two characters do mirror that it is similar to the book as Lenny acts like a child and George is the smart, dominant one. This is often shown in the close ups of their faces and in their speech and movement. The clothes they wear are described in the book as workers clothes so rugged and tattered, so the movie is also based on this part as the clothes in the movie are like this. In my opinion I think casting John Malkovich was perfect to be Lenny as he was able to portray the child like brain of Lenny. He seemed to fit the right description of Lenny. The voice used by John Malkovich was very effective in giving the viewer a childlike impression of Lenny. Gary Sinise although he was director he himself played George and he obviously knew how he wanted George to be played and he did with an amazing attitude, he gave out the attitude and cunningness of George as is written in the book. In conclusion, the beginning of the book and the beginning of the film are based on the same storyline. The way the scenes are described and presented are really quite different. Gary Sinise is able to create a sense of action and suspense followed by the calm of the willow pool, whilst Steinbeck creates a very rich and calm descriptive opening scene, which contrasts with the violence of what is actually happening. ‘Of mice and men’ – A comparison of the opening scenes of the film and the beginning of the book. (2017, Oct 26). We have essays on the following topics that may be of interest to you

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Breast Cancer Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Breast Cancer - Research Paper Example Locally advanced breast cancer is distinguished by the application of the TNM Staging Process and is considered to be stage III where the tumor has extended to the chest wall and or the axillary nodes but has not metastasize to far organs and body cavities. Last but not the least is metastatic breast cancer or advanced breast cancer, which is distinguished by the presence of malignant or cancerous cells in the various body parts like the bone; or distant organs like the lungs or the liver (Johnston et al, 2008). Signs and Symptoms Breast cancer symptoms are mostly composed of the changes in the physical outlook of the breast marked by lumps/growths, nipple retraction or dimpling, flaky skin on the nipple area, bloody discharges from the nipple and a change in the shape or alignment of the breast. The symptoms stated may be related to other forms of illness, hence undergoing mammogram screening is the best option if breast cancer is suspected because this will show malignant cells of tumors present within the breast especially if they are small and cannot be felt by the touch of the hand even while breast self examination is done (Johnston et al, 2008). Etiology/Pathogenesis The risk of breast cancer increases with age and becomes double every ten years until a woman reaches menopause. The root cause of breast cancer is still currently undetermined, but recent studies show that the development of the disease comes from various factors, and that women who are predispose to the following aspects are more susceptible to breast cancer: 1) had early menarche (menstruation) especially those who had their first menstrual period before age twelve; 2) had their menopause at a later age than the normal; 3) gave birth at an older age (30 years old and above); 4) has a family history of breast cancer; 5) excess alcohol consumption; 6) prolonged exposure of breast tissue to radiation; 7) recent utilization of oral contraceptives; 8) had postmenopausal hormone replacement the rapy; 9) obesity; and 10) mutation of the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 (Johnston et al, 2008). Diagnostic Tests After being diagnosed of breast cancer and before surgery or any other treatment is considered for the patient, an assessment which includes medical history review, mammography and histology are done extensively. The patient assessment profile is followed by biopsy and the staging process, to determine the extent or magnitude of the cancer involved. Subsequent to the results of the tests that were done; the patients will now be informed of the different treatment alternatives, making them aware of the advantage and disadvantages of each treatment poses and the risks involved in all the procedures that will be undertaken (Chan et al, 2010). Treatments The recommended medical treatment for breast cancer involves the application and combination of: surgery (mastectomy), chemotherapy plus tamoxifen. radiotherapy plus tamoxifen, neo-adjuvant therapy and systemic adjuvant chemotherapy. Prior to any form of medical treatment, doctors normally provide their patients with options on how to cure the disease. This means giving the patient appropriate information on the actual procedures involved to remove the cancer cells from the breast and other parts of the body where it metastasized. This process permits the patient to choose for herself or himself about the kind of medical treatm